Topic 8 – Phonological system of the English language II: The consonants. Phonetic symbols. Comparison with the phonological system of the official language or languages ​​of the corresponding Autonomous Community.

1. INTRODUCTION.. 5

1.1. Organs of speech. 5

1.2. Phonetic/Phonology. 5

1.3. Varieties of E (L2): R.P./General American. 5

1.3.1. RP. 5

1.3.2. General American. 6

2. Definition of a consonant 6

3. Description of the system.. 6

3.1. Place of articulation. 6

3.2. manner of articulation. 7

3.3. Force of articulation. 7

4. Consonant variations. 7

4.1. Devoicing. 7

4.1.1. of Lenis consonants: 7

4.1.2. Of /l r w j/ 7

4.2. Aspiration. 8

4.3. Release of the plosives: 8

4.4. Coalescence or Palatalization: 9

4.5. Simplification of consonant clusters. 9

4.6. Assimilation. 9

4.7. Morphophonemic alternations. 11

5. Diatopic variations. 11

5.1. Non pre-vocalic /r/ 11

5.2. Vocalic /l/ 11

5.3. H-dropping. 11

5.4. Dental fricatives. 11

5.5. /ju:/ / /u:/ 12

6. The spelling of consonants. 12

7. Comparision between Spanish and English systems. 13

8. Main difficulties for Spanish speakers. 13

8.1. Problems with consonants. 13

8.2. Problems with clusters. 14

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 15

1. INTRODUCTION. 16

1.1. Phonetics and phonology. 16

1.2. Typology of segtnental sounds: consonants. 16

2. THE ENGLISH CONSONANT SYSTEM… 16

2.1. General features. 16

2.2. Chart of English consonants. 16

3. Diatopic variations. 17

3.1. Non pre-vocalic /r/ 17

3.2. Vocalic /l/ 17

3.3. H-dropping. 17

3.4. Replacement of /t/ by .. ‘. 17

3.5. Dental fricatives. 17

3.6. /ju:/ / /u:/ 17

4. Consonant Variations. 17

4.1. Devoicing. 17

4.2. Aspiration. 18

4.3. Release of plosives. 18

4.4. Coalescence or Palatalization. 18

4.5. Simplification of consonant clusters. 18

4.6. Assimilation. 18

5. SPELLING.. 18

6. Comparision between English and Spanish systems. 18

7. Main difficulties for Spanish speakers. 19

QUESTIONS ON THE TOPIC.. 20

TOPIC-BASED UNIT.. 21

1. INTRODUCTION.. 21

1.1. Presentation and justification of the chosen option. 21

1.2. Connection with the official curriculum.. 21

1.3. Our school and our students. 21

2. Working plan. 22

2.1. Materials. 22

2.2. Didactic objectives. 22

2.3. Contents. 23

2.3.1. Concepts: 23

2.3.2. Procedures. 23

2.3.3. Attitudes. 23

2.3.4. methodology. 24

3. TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES. 24

3.1. Teacher’s notes. 25

3.2. VARIATIONS. 26

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Organs of speech

1.2. Phonetic/Phonology

Phonetics is the science concerned with the study of sounds, that is, material elements: vibrations, waves,…we distinguish 3 types of Phonetics:

1. Articulatory phonetics: it deals with the organs of speech

2. Acoustic Phonetics: it studies the sound waves.

3. Auditive Phonetics: auditive organs.

Phonology is the science which studies phonemes, that is the abstract ideas behind those sounds. These phonemes are defined in a systematic way (Sausseare was the first one to draw a distinction between abstract units and material ones): they are defined in negative terms: one phoneme is what the others are not.

1.3. Varieties of E (L2): R.P./General American

General American and RP were usually taught to foreigners till the 50s and 60s.

1.3.1. RP

Originally, it’s the accent of the South East of England, but it’s associated to the upper classes (public schools, Tory party…). It’s no longer a diatopic variety but a diastratic one. In fact, it’s used all over Britain and Ireland. It also used to be the only accent accepted by the BBC, but not now.

1.3.2. General American

There’s not an unchallenged variety, a general accepted variety, but there’s consensus that the English of the Central East coast should be taught

Even national media with professionally trained voices have speakers with regionally mixed features. It can be described as a relatively homogeneous dialect that reflects the ongoing development of progressive Gen American dialects.

2. Definition of a consonant

A consonant is defined from :

1. a phonetic point of view: a sound which is produced with audible friction or blockage in the flow of air along the central line of breath from the lungs through the mouth.

2. a phonological point of view: the element which can´t be the nucleus of a syllable.

However, there are some elements which don´t fit in any of these groups:

· semivowels: Phonetically speaking they are vowels, but phonologically, they are consonants: /j w/

· Semiconsonants: Phonetically speaking they are consonants, and phonologically they are vowels: /l m n r/

3. Description of the system

The system of English consonants is characterised, from a phonological point of view, by a high degree of symetry. twenty-four consonants can be distinguished according to three distinctive features.

3.1. Place of articulation

1. bilabial

2. labiodental

3. dental

4. alveolar

5. postalveolar

6. palatal

7. velar

8. glottal

3.2. manner of articulation

1. Plosive.- with complete closure or blockage of the air stream

2. Affricate.- Combining friction and stoppage of the air stream

3. Fricative.- Produced with friction.

4. Nasal.- With nasal release of the air stream

5. Lateral.- The air flows out along the sides of the tongue.

6. Approximant. – Produced with approximation of the articulatory organs.

3.3. Force of articulation

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Post-Alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Plosive

p b

t d

k g

Affricate

Fricative

f v

s z

(x)

h

Nasal

m

n

Lateral

l

Aproximant

w

r

j

4. Consonant variations

4.1. Devoicing

4.1.1. of Lenis consonants:

b d g

1. fortis + lenis plosive: b d g

pause

2. lenis plosive + fortis : b d g. in this case we may find even aspiration

pause

good Great Britain (In this case we may also find assimilation: ).

4.1.2. Of /l r w j/

fortis plosive (in an accented syllable) + /l r w j/:

pupils / /, quite / /, place, small, sneeze, cream, quite, pew.

4.2. Aspiration.

/p, t, k/ are strongly aspirated in accented syllables, e.g.:

come /k m/ take /t e k/ put /p t/

They are weakly aspirated in accented syllables and generally in word final position, e.g.:

Upper lip / l

They are unaspirated after /s/, e.g.:

Pain/Spain

4.3. Release of the plosives:

English plosives are not always released in the same way; they may present the following alternatives:

1. oral release: when followed by vowels or semivowels.

2. non-audible release: –

· final position: mat/map

· plosive+plosive: Great Britain (here assimilation could be possible aswell)

· plosive+ affricate: great joke

· secueneces of three plosives: he wept bitterly.

3. glottal reinforcement release (/p t k/): it is optional before pauses and consonants. It usually takes place in final position:

he was shot

4. nasal release: it takes palce whenever you have a plosive + a homorganic nasal: top most submerge cotton madness

when you don’t have homorganic pairs it’s not that common: cheap nuts.

5. lateral release when we have a plosive+ an homorganic lateral: /t d/+ /l/

e.g.: kettle middle

4.4. Coalescence or Palatalization:

s : mission, social

z pleasure, closure

d during, education

t structure, future

it usually takes plce when /s z t d/ are followed bycategory changing suffixes such as: –ion, –ure and –ial.

And so, these words are not palatalized:

missile

please

In many language varieties this process of palatalization has been unequal: whereas BBC English has /edju:keit/ (non palatalized) Gen Am has /ed .keit/ (palatalized).

4.5. Simplification of consonant clusters

Whenever several consonants occur together at the and of a word, one of them is usually left out. Such simplification is very common, for example among words containing a four consonant cluster:

Wept bitterly

Sixth /s s /

4.6. Assimilation

A sound becomes modified by a neighbouring one:

There are examples of assimilation which occurred long ago and have remained frozen or irreversible:

1 ./vI→/f/ in have to (/h..ft /)

2./d/ →/d../ under the influence of following /j/ in the case of soldier.

Other instances of assimilation depend on thbe style of speech.

All these processes have given way in many instances to alternative pronunciations of words. The most important cases are mentioned below:

1. /s/-/z/

· sive: adhesive, evasive.

· trans-: transfer, transitive.

· absorb, absurd, fantasy

2. /z/-/s/

· trans-: translate, transmit.

· hussy, Joseph, opposite, treatise, usage.

3. /s/-/../

· Asia, conversion, excursion, version.

4. /b/-/p/

· absence, absolute, absorb, absurd.

5. /t /-/tj/

· mature, Christian, accentuate, situation.

6. /d /-/dj/

· education, individual.

7. / /-/sj, s/

· association, glacial.

8. elision-consonant

· grandmna, sandpaper, sandwich.

· postcard, directly.

· instinct, precinct.

· assumption, temptation.

· prehistoric, rehabilitate.

4.7. Morphophonemic alternations

Assimilation can not be seen as a purely sound-conditioned pbenomenon:

bays /beiz/ base /beis/

The IzI of bays is a case of asssimilation restricted to particular circumstances. Such a case of assimilation is then termed morphophonemic.

5. Diatopic variations

5.1. Non pre-vocalic /r/

1. R.P. isn´t a Rhotic accent, so it will only be realized before a vowel.

2. Rhotic accents: it´s always pronounced.

· Vocalic /r/: Gen American, Northern Ireland, Scotland and the English South West.

· Roll /r/: In parts of southern Ireland and Scotland

· Uvular /r/: In old county Durham and Northumberland

5.2. Vocalic /l/

/l/ is completely vocalic in accents as Cockney and Southern American:: Example:

Cockney paw and Paul would be homophonous.

5.3. H-dropping

It’s more a siastratic phenomenon. It occurs more often before weak forms: her, him, he.

/t/→ [?]

This glottal stop usually replaces /t/ in intervocalic contexts: written.

5.4. Dental fricatives

/ /, / / →/f/ /v/. this takes place in Cockney, but it’s a very low class phenomenon:muffer for mother, nuffink for nothing.

5.5. /ju:/ / /u:/

Usually, in Enghish we have the pronunciation /ju:l whereas in AmE we have /u:/ in the same cases.

6. The spelling of consonants

English spelling has a bad reputation, partly because numerous words have more than one spelling, partly because many phonemes can be represented by a whole series of different graphemes.

There is a very imperfect degree of correspondence between sound and sign owing to such factors as:

1. Historical spellings which have been retained: blood.

2. Etymological spellings: subtle and doubt

3. Borrowings (entrepreneur, sauerkraut)

4. popular vs tendencies

In most cases there is a fixed correspondence between one letter and one sound: “1” represents /l/ and “b” /b/ . The exceptions are relatively few:

“kn-> (know) and “-mb” (comb, lamb).

When there is no letter available in the Latin alphabet to represent a particular phoneme, a combination of two letters is used:

Th: / /: in grammatical words or when followed by “-(e)r”.

/ /: in all lexical words.

/t/: Thomas, Thames,…

in ah otber lexical words: thing, theatre, thunder, etc.

ch”: /t / because of OE influence: church, cheese

/ /: French origin: champagne, chalet

/k/ Greek and Latin influenece: chaos, character

7. Comparision between Spanish and English systems

a) Phonemic oppositions:

1. English: 26 whereas Spanish: 19

2. Inconsitence of English spelling and pronounciation

3. English: 2 pairs of affricates and four pairs of fricatives whereasSpanish: 1 afrricate and five fricatives

4. only 11 similar phonemes

b) Phonetic level:

1. Spanish /b, d, g/ are realized as fricatives in certain contexts whereas are always plosives.

2. Spanish /b, k, m/ are extremely rare in final position.

3. English !d~! is of much free occurrence than Spanish [d;].

4. Spanish /l/ is always clear.

c) Syllable structure:

1. Consonant clusters are more numerous in English.

2. Some consonants are vocoids in English.

d) Spellings:

1. English: 120 for 26 phonemes.

2. Spanish: 28 for 19 phonernes.

8. Main difficulties for Spanish speakers.

8.1. Problems with consonants.

3. /p, t, k/ are not aspirated.

4. /h/ is repiaced by /xI.

5. /l/ is always clear in Spanish

6. /b/ and /v/ are confused.

7. /t/ /d/ are dental in Spanish.

8. /d/ and / /are confused.

9. / / is normally replaced by /n/ or /ng/.

10. We use /s/ for both /s/ and /z/

11. /j/ is replaced by /d /.

12. / / and /z// are replaced by /s/.

13. /wI is replaced by /b/ or /g/.

14. /t / and /d /are replaced by /t 1

8.2. Problems with clusters.

1. We add /e/ at the beginning of two- and three-element clusters beginning with /s/.

2. We add /s/ to forrn any plural, even when /z/ or /iz/ is required.

3. In final clusters with /t, d/ we either delete the final consonant or insert a vowel.

4. We delete one of the two /s/ in /s/ + consonant + /s/, e.g: nests.


9. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Bradford, B. Intonation in Context. CUP. Cambridge, 1988.

Byrne, D. Teaching Oral English. Longman. London, 1986.

Finch, F., and Ortiz Lira, H. A Course in English Phonetics for Spanish Speakers. Heinemann. London, 1982.

Gimson, A.C. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. Arnold. London, 1985.

Kenworthy, J. Teaching English Pronunciation. Longman. London, 1987.

Monroy Casas, R. Sistemas de Trascripción Fonética del Inglés. Universidad de Murcia, 1992.

Ramsaran, 5. Studies in the Pronunciation of Englísh London, Routledge, 1990.

Roach P. English Phonetics and Phonology, Cambridge University Press.

Jones, D. English Pronouncing Dictionary, 15th edition Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman, C.U.P. 1997

Palmer, H.E., and Blandford, F.G. A Grammar of Spoken English. Heffer. Cambridge, 1969 (3rd edition revised and rewritten by Kiíngdon, R.)

Baker, A. Tree or Three? CUP. Cambridge, 1985.

___Ship or Sheep? CUP. Cambridge, 1985.

Introducing English Pronunciation. CUP. Cambridge, 1984.


TOPIC SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION.

1.1. Phonetics and phonology

Phonetics is the science concerned with the study of speech processes, including the perception, transmission and reception of speech sounds from bothb an acoustic and a physiologicali point of view. Phonology is the science aiming to discover the rules which organise sounds into a language systern.

1.2. Typology of segtnental sounds: consonants

A consonant is defined, from a phonetic point of view, as a sound which is produced with audible friction or blockage in the flow of air along the central line of breath from the lungs through the mouth.

2. THE ENGLISH CONSONANT SYSTEM

2.1. General features

Iwenty-four consonants can be distinguished according to three distinctive features. These are:

1. Place of articulation.

2. Manner of articuiation

3. Force of articulation.

2.2. Chart of English consonants

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Post-Alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Plosive

p b

t d

k g

Affricate

Fricative

f v

s z

(x)

h

Nasal

m

n

Lateral

l

Aproximant

w

r

j

3. Diatopic variations

3.1. Non pre-vocalic /r/

1. Non Rhotic accent: /r/ is only prononced before avowel.

2. Rhotic accent: /rl always pronounced.

Gen Am, Irish English, Scottish English, several parts of the South West of England.

3.2. Vocalic /l/

Cockney paw and Paul would be hornophonous.

3.3. H-dropping

Typical of a lot of British English.

3.4. Replacement of /t/ by .. ‘

In British English it often happens that /tI is completely replaced by , and more often between vowels.

3.5. Dental fricatives

/ / and /…/ are often replaced by other fricatives: Cockney muffer for mother, nuffink for nothing. It’s associated with a very low register.

3.6. /ju:/ / /u:/

Usually, in Enghish we have the pronunciation /ju:l whereas in AmE we have /u:/ in the same cases.

4. Consonant Variations

4.1. Devoicing

Lenis consonants devoiced under certain círcurnstances.

4.2. Aspiration

/p, t, k/ are strongly aspirated in accented syllablhes. Weaklhy aspirated or totally unaspirated in other situations.

4.3. Release of plosives

English plosives show different kinds of release: oral, non audible, glottal, nasal, lateral.

4.4. Coalescence or Palatalization

/s,t,z,d/ are pronounced slightly farther back when preceded by /j/ in unstressed position.

4.5. Simplification of consonant clusters

Whenever several consonants occur together at the and of a word, one of them is usually left out.

4.6. Assimilation.

The pronunciation of one sound becomes in some way similar to that of a neighbouring sound. There are cases of assimilation restricted to particular circumstances. Such a case of assimilation is then termed morphophonemic.

5. SPELLING

Fundamentally based on phonemic principles. In most cases there is a fixed correspondence between one letter and one sound: “1” represents /l/ and ·b” /b/ . The exceptions are relatively few and easy to remember: the “k” of “kn” (know) and the “b” of “-mb” are never pronounced (comb, lamb). When there is no letter available in the Latin alphabet to represent a particular phoneme, a combination of two letters is used.

6. Comparision between English and Spanish systems.

1. Phonemic oppositions

2. Phonetic level

3. Syllable structure

4. Spellings

7. Main difficulties for Spanish speakers.

1. /p, t, k/ are not aspirated.

2. /h/ is repiaced by /xI.

3. /l/ is always clear in Spanish

4. /b/ and /v/ are confused.

5. /t/ /d/ are dental in Spanish.

6. /d/ and / /are confused.

7. / / is normally replaced by /n/ or /ng/.

8. We use /s/ for both /s/ and /z/

9. /j/ is replaced by /d /.

10. / / and /z// are replaced by /s/.

11. /wI is replaced by /b/ or /g/.

12. /t / and /d /are replaced by /t 1


QUESTIONS ON THE TOPIC

1. Consonant sound: deflnition.

A consonant is defined, from a phonetic point of view, as a sound which is produced with audible friction or blockage in the flow of air along the central line of breath from the lungs through the mouth.

From a phonemic or structural point of view, a consonant is the element which can’t be the nucleus of a syllable.

2. Assimilation: definition.

It is always possible to talk about assimilation whenever the pronunciation of one sound becomes in some way similar to that of a neighboring sound.

3. Distinctive features distinguishing consonants in English.

Twenty-four consonants can be distinguished according to three distinctive features:

· Place of articulation: bilabial, labio- dental ,dental, alveolar,post alveolar, palatal, velar glottal

· Manner of articulation: Plosive, Affricate, Fricative, Nasal, Lateral, Approximant.

· Force of articulation: fortis or lenis.

4. Problems with English consonant clusters for Spanish speakers.

1. We tend to add a vowel /e/ at the beginmng of two- and three-element clusters beginning with /s/.

2. We add /s/ to form any plural, even when /z/ or /iz/ iís required.

3. In final clusters with /t, d/ we either delete the final consonant or insert a vowel so laughed is not pronounced properly.

4. We normally delete one of the two /s/ in /s/ + consonant + /s/, e.g: nests.


TOPIC-BASED UNIT

The set of activities and procedures contained in this topic-based unit have been adapted from Hutchinson & Sunderland, Hotline Elementary. O.U.P 1991.

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Presentation and justification of the chosen option.

We have chosen the first possibility (the specific tasks to be undertakenwith our students) for we think it’s the best way to show how the scientific aspects of the topic discussed can be exploited in the context of a real class with real students.

1.2. Connection with the official curriculum

With regar to unit number 7, the general objectives of area that we expect to exploit are the following:

5. Pupils should be able to consider the way in which the linguistic system works so that it will facilitate the learning of the foreign language and the pupils’ own performance.

6. Pupils should be able to appreciate the knowledge of foreign languages in order both to communicate with people from other cultures and to take part in international relations.

7. Pupils should be able to understand global and specific messages, both oral and written, in the foreign language, related to varied everyday situations, and produced by face-to-face speakers or by the mass media.

8. Pupils should be able to use personal strategies to learn the foreign language, which will be worked out from experience with other languages and from their Iearning process.

1.3. Our school and our students

Our school will be located in a urban environment, in a part of town in which the socioeconomic cut could be defined as low-middle class. Most of our students’ parents do recognize the importance of education and therefore are preoccupied with their children’s academic progress, keeping fairly in touch with the teachers and the school governing staff. This also implies that there are not serious disciplinary problems in this school.

With regard to the nature of our students, we shall work with a group of 3rd year of E.S.O.students. This kind of students can think abstractly, solve logical problems and follow the scientific method. Adolescents with formal operational thought often reason about moral dilemas at postconventional levels. They base their moral judgements on their own personal values and standards, not on social conventions or the persuasion of authorities.

With regard to their level of English, it intermediate, being their motivation the average one, verging on low.

2. Working plan

2.1. Materials

Apart from the usual classroom material, we’ll have to make sure that the following material is available in the period we want to carry out the activities:

· Cassette player.

· Tape with tapescript.

· Dictionaries with a suitable phonetic alphabet.

2.2. Didactic objectives

Uses and forms of oral communication:

1. Considering the meaning of the discourse as the result of the interaction between the sender and the receiver.

2. Global understanding of oral messages coming from different sources by taking out the relevant information in each case according to the peculiarities of the source (verbal and non-verbal codes).

3. Producing oral messages which are cornprehensible to the speaker or speakers. Comprehensible pronunciation and suitable intonation.

Language and language learning awareness. –

4. Phonology: different sounds related to the mother tongue, intonation, etc.

5. Useful communicative strategies in order to maintain fluent and efficient communication.

6. to develop the student’s communicative competence as far as the accurate pronunciaton of English vowel sounds is concerned.

7. Consciously using some of the mechanisms which are involved in learning a foreign language in order to improve the output.

8. Showing curiosity to know how the foreign language works and appreciating how accuracy aids to fluent and efficient communication. Having a positive attitude towards suitable classroom activities.

9. To revise the student’s previous knowledge of the Enghish phonetic vowel alphabet: Its symbols and their corresponding sounds and some systematic notations present in phonetic representation.

10. To reflect upon the differences and similarities between the Enghish and the Spanish vowel sound system

2.3. Contents

2.3.1. Concepts:

Revision of the notions of

· Phonemes

· Phonetic alphabet

· The different phonetic symbols

2.3.2. Procedures

· Class discussion.

· Filling in blanks.

· Identifying sounds.

· Matching sounds to symbols.

· Scanning information from dictionaries and/or textbooks.

· Group work.

2.3.3. Attitudes

11. Interest in being abhe to represent sounds.

12. Interest in stating differences between Spanish and English phonological system.

13. Acceptance of English as a natural language to be used in the classroom.

14. Interest in improving utterances in English by reflecting upon the system. Be willing to modify wrong conclusions, considering error as an integral part of the learning process

2.3.4. methodology

Our topic-based unit is also based upon the following official methodological guidelines:

15. Start from the student’s degree of development.

16. Identify the student’s learning strategies and act consequently.

17. Promote the upbuilding of meaningful learning.

18. Promote the development of mental activity on the student

19. Promote the ability of”learning to learn”.

3. TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES

1. Look at the following list of consonant sounds in english. Fill the columno in the middle with a word containing the same sound:

/d/

Dog

/b/

Big

/ /

she

/d/

To

/p/

Pen

/t /

rich

/ /

This

/g/

Good

/ /

leisure

/ /

fourth

/k/

come

/d /

jacket

/f/

from

/s/

six

/j/

yesterday

/v/

very

/ /

sing

/z/

zoo

/h/

how

/n/

no

/r/

red

/m/

man

/l/

leg

/w/

wet

2. Listen to your teacher: you will hear some pairs of words. Are they the same or different? Fill in the gaps with S (same) or D (different) accordingly.

3. Complete these words with the correct symbol:

· Cheep / i:p/

· One: / n/

· Camera / mr/

· These / i:z/

· Cnahge / /

· Bath /b /

3.1. Teacher’s notes

a) Activity 1 (30 minutes)

Read the words aloud and then ask some students to go through the list again and repeat some of them. By the way of this first stage of the activity the need to precise the difference between some minimal pairs (voiced/voiceless specially, though not exchusively) will become obvious. You can then focus on the consonantal sound students may find difficuit, such as the pairs:

/s/ and /z/

/f/ and /v/

/ / and /z/

/t / and /d /

/ / and / /

/ /and /n/

A possible procedure would be the following:

1 Show the pronunciation of these pairs with words containing them; example: this/ fourth. Remind them that the difference in the articulation of these pairs can be traced in the action of the vocal cords (opposition voiced/voiceless sounds).

2.In order for them to grasp the difference, ask some of them to reproduce the sounds putting their fingers on their larynx so as to feel the vibration or absence of vibration as they say, for example

big /very

This experience will be very illustrative in making them feel the crucial and highly operative difference (from the point of view of the English phonological system) between voiced and voiceless consonantal sounds in English.

As to the filling in the table, get students to write new words in the spaces. Then ask students to check their words in a dictionary or in the textbook word list. Copy the table onto the board and ask students to suggest words to put in the table. Finally check the answers with the phonetic transcription in the word list.

b) Activity 2 (15 minutes)

Read out the following sets of words ( notice that some of them are repeated). Tell them not to write anything on the chart yet.

Cash/catch

Niece/knees

Very/berry

Chop/shop

Sing/sin

Choke/joke

One/once

This/this

Thick/thick

Ones/once

Now repeat the series and tell them to fill in the chart they have in their activity sheets.

Finally, go again through the sets of words and ask them individually whether they feel they are the same or different. Check the answers and tell them to repeat after you. At this stage you may still need to remind them of the concept of voiced/ voiceless consonant and do some individual correction. Slow and exaggerated articulatíon of the sounds really works in order to:

1 .Help the students understand the way they are articulated, and

2. Reproduce them accurately.

c) Activity 3 (5 minutes)

d) Key to tite activities

1) -Many possible answers.

2)

1D

4S

7D

10D

2D

5D

8D

3D

6S

9D

3.2. VARIATIONS

a) Activity 1.-

Select six sounds from the list. You could as well arrange the students in teams of four and tell them to distribute the task among themselves (each of the for must work on 25% of the words). Make sure the groups contain students with different ability levels. Tell them to look up as many words as possíble containing the sounds in question. Once the time is up, tell them to pool all the correct possibilities for each sound on the blackboard. The winning team is the one with the highest number of correct solutions. Once the words are on the blackboard you can call the students’ attention on the most typical spellings for each of the sounds.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

1) Complete these words wíth the correct symbol:

Chew/ /

Wash / /

Picture / /

Three / /

Orange/ /

John / /

ASSESSMENT

The prescriptive assessment criteria stated in the Basic Curricular Design for Compulsory Secondary Education will obviously apply here. Two different kinds of assessment will take place in order to gauge how well the student did in achieving the aims proposed:

Informal assessment . – It will cover:

1 .Linguistic factors:

· Being able to identify the different consonantal sounds with reasonable accuracy.

· Being able to reproduce them intelligibly and unambiguously. Total accuracy in the imitation of the sounds is not needed to achieve this, but it is highly desirable.

2. Non-linguistic ones:

· Attitude

· Group work

· Organisation of work, independence, etc.

The results will not only be assessed but also discussed with the students in order to maximise their learning potential in all aspects of their learning experience.

Formal tests. -.They are to be seen as a complement to informal assessment and an opportunity for students to find out how they are progressing, think about their problems and do something about them.

In the case of our topic-based unit, some discrete-item exercises could be devised in the middle and at the end of the term in order to check how well the students assimilated the most outstanding contents included in the unit. A possible approach would be, for example, to include an exercise having a format identical to Activity 3 in the present topic-based unit.

The minimal pass mark for the exercise shouid be 50% of the possible score.

Publicado: marzo 13, 2019 por Laura Gonzalez

Etiquetas: tema 8 inglés secundaria