Topic 9 – Phonological system of the English language III: Accent, rhythm and intonation. Comparison with the phonological system of the official language or languages ​​of the corresponding Autonomous Community.

1.1. Suprasegmental features of language: stress, rhyme and intonation. 4

2. STRESS. 4

2.1. Prominence ↔stress. 4

2.2. Stress rules. 4

2.3. Double stressed words. 5

2.4. Stress Shift 5

2.5. Compound: patterns. 6

2.6. Influence of stress on: 6

2.6.1. Phoneme realization. 6

2.6.2. Lexical minimal pairs. 6

2.6.3. As a marker of sentence stress (Halliday ‘s tonicity) and highlighting. 7

3. RHYTHM… 7

4. INTONATION.. 7

4.1. Definition: 7

4.2. Functions: 8

4.3. Paterns. 8

4.4. Halliday. 8

4.5. Brazil. 9

5. TONALITY.. 9

5.1. Relative clauses. 10

5.2. Alternative questions. 10

6. JUNCTURE: Gimson. 10

7. Comparison of English and Spanish Systems. 11

7.1. Word accentuation. 11

7.2. Rhythm. 12

7.3. Intonation. 12

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 13

TOPIC SUMMARY.. 14

1. INTRODUCTION.. 14

1.1. Suprasegmental features. 14

2. STRESS. 14

2.1. Influence of stress on: 15

2.1.1. Phoneme realization. 15

2.1.2. As a lexically distinctive feature. 15

2.1.3. As a marker of sentence stress (Halliday ‘s tonicity) and highlighting. 15

3. RHYTHM… 15

4. INTONATION.. 15

4.1. Definition. 15

4.2. Functions. 15

4.3. Tones. 16

4.4. General meaning of falling and rising intonation. 16

4.4.1. Halliday’s approach. 16

4.4.2. Brazil’s approach. 16

5. TONALITY.. 16

5.1. Tonality and relative clauses. 16

5.2. Tonality and alternative questions. 16

6. JUNCTURE.. 17

7. ENGLISH VS SPANISH SUPRASEGMENTAL SYSTEM. 17

7.1. Word accentuation. 17

7.2. Rhythm. 17

7.3. Intonation. 17

QUESTIONS ON THE TOPIC.. 18

TOPIC-BASED UNIT NUMBER 9. 21

1. INTRODUCTION.. 21

1.1. Presentation and justification of the chosen option. 21

1.2. Connection with the official curriculum.. 21

1.3. Our school and our students. 21

2. Working plan. 22

2.1. Aims. 22

2.2. Materials. 22

2.3. Contents. 22

2.3.1. Concepts. 22

2.3.2. Procedures. 22

2.3.3. Attitudes. 22

3. TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES. 23

3.1. Teacher’s notes. 24

3.2. Variations. 25

3.3. Follow-un activities: 25

4. ASSESSMENT.. 25

4.1. Informal assessment. 25

4.2. Formal tests. –. 26

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Suprasegmental features of language: stress, rhyme and intonation

Any linguistic utterance can be divided into segments belonging to a very limited inventory of sounds: phonemes, and at a different level, above this one, we may locate the so called suprasegmental:

1. They cannot be isolated in a discrete way in the same manner as a sound can be distinguished within the utterance.

2. They may pervade the sequence of segmental sounds, therefore occurring over a number of them.

The suprasegmental features are the following:

· Stress.

· Rhythm.

· Intonation.

· Tonality. (Feature established by Halliday)

· Juncture.

2. STRESS

2.1. Prominence ↔stress

We have to distinguish stress and prominence. Strees is just one of the ways to achieve prominence:

· Length

· Pitch.

· Stress

2.2. Stress rules.

In most cases three levels of stress are recognised in English:

· Primary stress.

· Secondary stress

· Unstressed syllable.

There are some stress rules but sometimes they don´t work.:

1. abstract nouns ending in –ion: syllable preceding the ending.

2. Stress before adjectival –ic: ‘phoneme pho´nemic

3. Stress before nominal –ity: u´nanimous una´nimity

4. Unchanged with –ite: ‘Reagan ‘Reaganite

Photograph photography photographic

2.3. Double stressed words

Words formed by a separable prefix, both the word and the word will have a primary accent:

Anticlimax, archbishop, disconnect (disgust wouldn’t be included here because “dis” isnt a prefix here), ex-wife, half-finished, overestimate, misquote (mistake: mis isn’t a prefix here).

2.4. Stress Shift

Sorne common words in English have two stresses when pronounced in isolation:

Amen / e men/ daresay / de se / –teen / :ti:n/

These and some other words seem to change their stress pattern in connected speech:

Fourteen pounds: /f :ti.n paundz/

Just fourteen / st f :ti:n/

after’noon but ‘after,noon ‘tea

Princess Vic’toria but a ,royal prin’cess

Artificial: / :t f l/

Artificial language /…:t f l la gw d /

The proximity of another stress will push the next one. Here we can see the influence of rhythm into stress.

It usually happens to words with two stresses but it can also happen to words with just one beat:

Diplomatic: /d pl ma t k/

A diplomatic mission / d pl ma /

2.5. Compound: patterns

There are two patterns:

1. Simple stressed:appletree, house-keeper, windscreen

2. Double stressed: good-looking. Whenever the first element is an adjective, we’ll have double stress: ‘old-‘fashioned, ‘second-‘hand

Sometimes it’s important to stress compounds well, if not confusion can take place:

/´bla kb :d/- /bla k´b :d/

/nju: ka sl/

/gri:nhaus/

We must say that stress shift may also affect compounds: ‘snow-white hairsnow-‘white

2.6. Influence of stress on:

2.6.1. Phoneme realization

Depending on stress we’ll have a full vowel or vowel reduction towards / /:

Atom-atomic

2.6.2. Lexical minimal pairs

Stress can help distinguishing between words belonging to different grammar categories. This distinction may or may not involve changes of sound quality. The noun or adjective has first syllable stress, the verb second-syllable stress (Gimson):

/tr :nsp :t/ (N)-/tr :ns’p :t/ (V)

/reb l/ (N)– /r ‘bel/ (V)

In some words the difference is between two meanings of an adjective (invalid: ‘sick’ or ‘void’).

There are a large number of words with optional accentuations:

Adult, weekend, hospitably

2.6.3. As a marker of sentence stress (Halliday ‘s tonicity) and highlighting

Stress marks, in connection with intonation, the word which carries the syntactic or sentence stress. Most frequently the rheme carries the stress. If a different word is to be stressed, this will be a case of contrastive stress. In this case, the item that carries the stress is consciously emphasised in opposition to what might otherwise be the case. Example:

‘I saw her- I saw ‘her- I ‘saw her.

Halliday calls this function of stress in which a particular word which contains new information is emphasised, tonicity.

3. RHYTHM

Rhythm can be defined as the pattern formed by peaks of prominence: stressed syllables as they are distributed in an utterance.

English is referred to as a stress-timed language: the time between each beat will be approximately the same as the time taken by two consecutive accented syllables (Pike). However, Gimson considers that there are not regular intervals between stresses (isochrony) as sounds following a main beat tend to occupy slightly more time than the preceding sounds:

The authority of government is in danger

Instead of : beat-slow-fast-beat-slow, we have isochrony.

4. INTONATION

4.1. Definition:

The use of changes in the pitch of the voice. It can be described in terms of music. Linguists have no reached an agreement on the value of different patterns, contours or tones.n spite of its pos­sible varieties of use due to regional language vanieties, the basic function of intonation is probably very similar for most of them.

4.2. Functions:

Three main functions can be distinguished with regard to intonation:

1. An affective one.- It is possible to use the same sequence of words to express a wide nange of feelings, such as joy, indifference, sarcasmn, etc.

2. A grammatical one.- Intonation can also be used grammatically to signal whether a particular sequence of words is to be understood as a statement or a question…

3. A pnagmatic one.-promise, warning, command.

4.3. Paterns

There are five basic intonational contours. These contouns are referred to as tones. They are:

4.4. Halliday

For Halliday:

Falling contours mean certainty.

Rising contours mean uncertainty.

· Statements

They are usually spoken with falling intonation because they express certainty. If however the speaker is less certain or dogmatic, this attitude can be conveyed by means of a final rise. You are encouraging the other person to speak, (phatic communication): you want to start a communication:

It’s pretty late

· The yes-no questions

The appropriate intonation will be rising:

You are tired, aren’t you? : question

: confirmation, you know it.

· Wh- questions

They take a falling entonation because there’s certainty:

What time are you going home?

You assume that the other person has a home and that he’s going there. You may expect an answer such as I’m not going anywhere.

If you use a rise-fall pattern to are telling him to go away. However, if you use a fall-rise pattern you sound more open and frniendly, less absolute: the speaker comes across as more polite and friendly.

4.5. Brazil.

Proclaiming patterns: they have to do with wathever is new, which hasn’t been negotiated: theme

Referring patterns: they refer to shared knowledge: meaning which has already been negotiated: rheme.

· Statements

It ‘s getting pretty late (1)

This is what I say, but you don’t have a ny idea about it.

I encourage you to give your opinion. It’s the phatic function: talking for the sake of talking.

· Wh-questions

I want to introduce anew topic. You didn´t know what I was going to talk about.

· Yes-No questions

Are you tired?

Shared knowledge. You convey the information but you already know the answer.

5. TONALITY

Term coined by Halliday. It can be defined as the number of intonation patterns in a clause. It’s useful for relative clauses: to distinguish between defining and non-defining, and for alternative question.

Halliday speaks of two possibilities for a single sentence or clause, as far as tonality is concerned:

1. A single intonational contour: the sentence shows neutral tonality: the unmarked on normal situation.

2. The intonational contour may be longer or shorter than a clause.:

5.1. Relative clauses

In written language a comma, a pause, differentiates defining and non-defining sentences, however in spoken language we may have one big falling contour or two:

I phoned my daughter who lives in Paris I phoned my daughter who lives in Paris

If the sentence is non-defining, we may have 1 or 2 falling patterns, but if it’s defining we’ll just have one falling pattern.

5.2. Alternative questions

Alternative questions have different interpretations depending on which contours they have and whether have one or more contours. Can you speak Spanish or French? may have the following interpretations depending on the tones and the tonality:

A: I want to know whether you can speak either.

B. Please, specify which

C. Or any other language

D. Can you speak any language at all?

6. JUNCTURE: Gimson

Juncture is concerned with the way in which neighbouring sounds and words are joined. It’s formed by those cues that help you know where boundaries are. When a pause follows a word, there is an open juncture; otherwise there is a closed juncture.

Liaison: when one word ends with a consonant and the other begins with a vowel, the final consonant of the first word is normally bound to the second word. When this liaison does not occur the speaker of English often uses a glottal stop [?] to separate the two sounds.

An important kind of liaison is the linking /r/, which occurs in several non-rhotic accents, (especially BBC English,):

Peter and Andrews /pi:t ndrju:z//.

The pattern of the linking /r/ leads to the articulation of /r/ where no “r” occurs in the spelling: intrusive /r/. It’s used to mark the boundaries:

I saw Ann / s :r n//

It can also happen inside a word:

Drawer /dr :r /

Juncture also helps know where the boundaries are:

an oat / a note

/ tst f/ that’s tough

that stuff

/pi:st :ks/ pea stalks

peace talks

After an “s” there’s usually no aspiration, and before a fortis consonant the pre-fortis clipping takes place.

The problem in these cases is more academic than real life because the context will give us the clue.

7. Comparison of English and Spanish Systems

7.1. Word accentuation.

1. Both English and Spanish have free accents, so you don’t know in which syllable the accent falls). In Spanish it falls in the last but one (llanas) whereas in English it tends to be pushed backwards:

Garage /g r : /: French pronunciation

/g r /:as it’s been assimilated

2. Spanish has no double-stressed words, nor secondary stress.

3. Spanish stress will not affect vowel quality: there’s no reduction towards / /:

Atom- atomic

7.2. Rhythm.

The same type of words is usually accented in both languages. However we can see at least three differences:

1. Vowel weakening is very slight in Spanish.

2. We tend to extra stress polysyllabic words to show emphasis.

3. English is a ‘stress-timed’ language whereas Spanish is a ‘syllable-timed’ language. There’s no isochrony in Spanish.

7.3. Intonation.

There’s lack of research of Spanish intonation. However, we must say that both English and Spanish are Indo-European languages, so there’s the feeling that they contours in both languages have the same meaning.


8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Coulthard, M. An introduction to discourse analysis, 2nd Edition, London, Longman.

2. Byrne, D. Teaching Oral English. Longman, London, 1986.

3. Finch, F., and Ortiz Lira, H. A Course in English Phonetics for Spanish Speakers. Heinemann. London, 1982.

4. Girnson, A.C. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. Arnold. London, 1985.

5. Kenworthy, J. Teaching English Pronunciation. Longman. London, 1987.

6. Ramsaran, S. Studies in the Pronunciation of English London, Routledge, 1990.

7. Roach P. English Phonetics and Phonology, Cambridge University Press.

8. Jones, D. English Pronouncing Dictionary, 15th Edition Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman, C.U.P. 1997

9. Palrner, H.E., and Blandford, F.G. A Grammar of Spoken English. Heffer. Cambridge, 1969 (3rd edition revised and rewritten by Kingdon, R.)

10. Baker, A. Tree or Three? CUP. Cambridge, 1985.

11. —- Ship.or.S.heep? CUP. Cambridge, 1985.

12. Introducing English Pronunciation. CUP. Cambridge, 1984.

13. Grarnley, S. Pátzold, K. A Survey of Modern English Routledge, London, 1992


TOPIC SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Suprasegmental features.

Different from segmental features in that:

1. They cannot be isolated in a discrete way in the same manner as a sound can be distinguished within the utterance.

2. They may pervade the sequence of segmental sounds, therefore occurring over a number of them.

The suprasegrnental features are the following:

· Stress.

· Rhythm.

· Intonation.

· Tonality. (Feature established by Halliday)

· Juncture.

2. STRESS

We have to distinguish stress and prominence. Stress is just one of the ways to achieve prominence:

· Length

· Pitch.

· Stress

2.1. Influence of stress on:

2.1.1. Phoneme realization

Unstressed syllables tend to have vowels with a schwa.

2.1.2. As a lexically distinctive feature

Stress also aids to distinguish between words forming lexicai pairs, such as ‘Main *Street and * main ‘street, the former being a compound.

The distinctive function of stress may also occur at a different level, i.e., distinguishing between words belonging to different grammar categories.

2.1.3. As a marker of sentence stress (Halliday ‘s tonicity) and highlighting

Stress marks, in connection with intonation, the word which carries the syntactic or sentence stress.

3. RHYTHM

The pattern formed by peaks of prominence as they are distributed in an utterance. English is a stress-timed language. This rneans that when two accented syllables are separated by unaccented ones, these tend to be compressed and quickened, so that the time between each beat will be approximately the same as the time taken by two consecutive accented syllables (Pike).

4. INTONATION

4.1. Definition

The use of changes in the pitch of the voice.

4.2. Functions

Affective: sarcasm, irony…

Grammatical: question, statement…

Pragmatic: promise, warning, command

4.3. Tones

Fall

Rise

Fall-Rise

Rise-Fall

4.4. General meaning of falling and rising intonation.

4.4.1. Halliday’s approach

Statements are usually spoken with falling intonation (1) because they express certainty.

Yes-no questions are in order if a speaker is not sure whether sornething is the case or not. The appropriate intonation will be rising (2).

Wh- questions always contain an assertion, and it is understandable that they take falling intonation.

4.4.2. Brazil’s approach.

Tones may be:

· Proclaiming: theme

· Referring: rheme

5. TONALITY

The number of intonational contours which correspond to a clause.

5.1. Tonality and relative clauses

If the sentence is non-defining, we may have 1 or 2 falling patterns, but if it’s defining we’ll just have one falling pattern

5.2. Tonality and alternative questions

Alternative questions have different interpretations depending on which contours they have and whether or not they have more than one contour.

6. JUNCTURE

Juncture is concerned with the way in which neighbouring sounds and words are joined.

7. ENGLISH VS SPANISH SUPRASEGMENTAL SYSTEM.

7.1. Word accentuation.

1. Both English and Spanish have free accents, so you don’t know in which syllable the accent falls). In Spanish it falls in the last but one (llanas) whereas in English it tends to be pushed backwards:

2. Spanish has no double-stressed words, nor secondary stress.

3. Spanish stress will not affect vowel quality: there’s no reduction towards / /:

7.2. Rhythm.

There are at least three differences:

Vowel weakening is very slight in Spanish.

We tend to extra stress polysyllabic words to show emphasis.

English is a ‘stress-tirned’ language whereas Spanish is a ‘syllable-timed’ language.

7.3. Intonation.

Lack of research of Spanish Intonation.

Both languages are Indo-European, so there’s the feeling that contours have the same meaning.


QUESTIONS ON THE TOPIC

1. Enumerate the suprasegmental features studied in the topic.

1. Stress.

2. Rhythm.

3. Intonation.

4.Tonality. (Feature established by Halliday)

5. Juncture.

2. General trends for stress patterns

There are some stress rules but sometimes they don’t work.:

· abstract nouns ending in –ion: syllable preceding the ending.

· Stress before adjectival –ic: ‘phoneme pho´nemic

· Stress before nominal –ity: u´nanimous una´nimity

· Unchanged with –ite: ‘Reagan ‘Reaganite

Photograph photography photographic

Double stressed words

Words formed by a separable prefix, both the word and the word will have a primary accent:

Anticlimax, archbishop, disconnect (disgust wouldn’t be included here because “dis” isnt a prefix here), ex-wife, half-finished, overestimate, misquote (mistake: mis isn’t a prefix here).

Stress Shift

Some common words in English have two stresses when pronounced in isolation:

Amen / e men/ daresay / de se / –teen / :ti:n/

These and some other words seem to change their stress pattern in connected speech:

Fourteen pounds: /f :ti.n paundz/

Just fourteen / st f :ti:n/

after’noon but ‘after,noon ‘tea

Princess Vic’toria but a ,royal prin’cess

Artificial: / :t f l/

Artificial language /…:t f l la gw d /

The proximity of another stress will push the next one. Here we can see the influence of rhythm into stress.

It usually happens to words with two stresses but it can also happen to words with just one beat:

Diplomatic: /d pl ma t k/

A diplomatic mission / d pl ma /

Compound: patterns

There are two patterns:

· Simple stressed: apple tree, house-keeper, windscreen

· Double stressed: good-looking. Whenever the first element is an adjective, we’ll have double stress: ‘old-‘fashioned, ‘second-‘hand

Sometimes it’s important to stress compounds well, if not confusion can take place:

/´bla kb :d/- /bla k´b :d/

/nju: ka sl/

/gri:nhaus/

We must say that stress shift may also affect compounds: ‘snow-white hairsnow-‘white

3. Tonality and relative clauses

In written language a comma, a pause, differentiates defining and non-defining sentences, however in spoken language we may have one big falling contour or two:

I phoned my daughter who lives in Paris I phoned my daughter who lives in Paris

If the sentence is non-defining, we may have 1 or 2 falling patterns, but if it’s defining we’ll just have one falling pattern.

Non restrictive relative clauses can have their own separate contour, sornething which is not possible With restrictive relative clauses. Which must share a contour with the sentence in which they are embedded. If someone has only one daughter, then the sentence given below is non defining and may appear as either (a) or (b), that is, either with or ‘vi­thout a separate contour for the non-restrictive relative ciause, and the (b) version will be wíth a cornma. If the speaker has several daughters, the relative clause serves to identify which is rneant and is defining; hence only one cjntour, as in (b), is possibíe and there ma>’ be no cornma:

(a) That is my daughter(1), who lives in California.(1)

(b) That is my daughter (,) who lives in California (1)


TOPIC-BASED UNIT NUMBER 9

The set of activities and procedures contained in this topic-based unit have been adapted from Hutchinson & Sunderland, Hotline Elementary. O.U.P 1991.

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Presentation and justification of the chosen option.

We have chosen the first possibility (the specific tasks to be undertaken with our students) for we think it’s the best way to show how the scientific aspects of the topic discussed can be exploited in the context of a real class with real students.

1.2. Connection with the official curriculum

With regard to unit number 7, the general objectives of area that we expect to exploit are the following:

1. Pupils should be able to consider the way in which the linguistic system works so that it will facilitate the learning of the foreign language and the pupils’ own performance.

2. Pupils should be able to appreciate the knowledge of foreign languages in order both to communicate with people from other cultures and to take part in international relations.

3. Pupils should be able to understand global and specific messages, both oral and written, in the foreign language, related to varied everyday situations, and produced by face-to-face speakers or by the mass media.

4. Pupils should be able to use personal strategies to learn the foreign language, which will be worked out from experience with other languages and from their learning process.

1.3. Our school and our students

Our school will be located in an urban environment, in a part of town in which the socioeconomic cut could be defined as low-middle class. Most of our students’ parents do recognize the importance of education and therefore are preoccupied with their children’s academic progress, keeping fairly in touch with the teachers and the school governing staff. This also implies that there are not serious disciplinary problems in this school.

With regard to the nature of our students, we shall work with a group of 3rd year of E.S.O. students. This kind of students can think abstractly, solve logical problems and follow the scientific method. Adolescents with formal operational thought often reason about moral dilemmas at post conventional levels. They base their moral judgments on their own personal values and standards, not on social conventions or the persuasion of authorities.

With regard to their level of English, it intermediate, being their motivation the average one, verging on low.

2. Working plan

2.1. Aims

1. To be able to reproduce, identify stress and intonation-patterns

2. To reflect on the importance of suprasegmental features in order to understand and be understood

2.2. Materials

1. Usual classroom material

2. Tape and tape recorder

2.3. Contents

2.3.1. Concepts

1. Stress, stress pattern, intonation

2. Distinctive role of sentence stress and intonation

2.3.2. Procedures

· Skills: listening, writing and speaking.

· Grouping: individual and the whole class.

2.3.3. Attitudes

1. Interest in phonetics.

2. Interest in stating differences between Spanish and English word and sentence stress and intonation patterns.

3. Acceptance of English as a natural language to be used in the classroom.

4. Interest in improving own utterances in English by reflecting upon the system. Be willing to modify wrong conclusions, considering error as an integral pan of the learning process.

3. TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES

In words with two syllables, one syllable is usual/y stressed more than the other: Example bedroom guitar

a) Look at these words. Which svllable has the stress?

Bedroom

Nothing

Morning

Breakfast

Guitar

Correct

Matter

Swimming

England

Compare

Thirty

Dinner

Housework

Birthday

Picture

Around

Problem

Relax

Repeat

Quickly

b ) Listen and check vour ideas

b) Which syllable has usually the stress?

c) d) Listen again and repeat

Activity 2. – Sentence stress

In a sentence not all the syllables are stressed equally:

What did you do?

We painted my room

a) Where is the stress in these sentences?

1 I’m going to the shops 5 1 phoned you yesterday morning

2 Do you want to come? 6 Were you ill on Saturday?

3 She’s only kidding. 7 What’s the matter with Terry?

4 I’m fed up ‘vith this 8 1 think he fancies Sue

b) Listen and check your ideas

c) Listen again and repeat

Activity three. –

a) Look:

Have you ever spoken to a tourist?

I’ve got an English penfriend

b) Listen. Is it a question or a statement?

c) Listen again and repeat

3.1. Teacher’s notes

a) Activity 1 (15 minutes). –

Students look at the examples. Pay the examples on the cassette. Students listen and repeat.

Students copy the words into their notebook. Copy them onto the board. Students mark the stresses. Students give their ideas. Mark them on the board

Play the cassette. Students listen and check their ideas. Play the cassette again.

b) Activity 2 (15 minutes)

Students look at the example. Ask Which words are stressed?. Students give their answers.

Students copy the sentences into their notebooks. Copy them onto the board. Students mark the stress points in their sentences. Students mark the stresses on the board.

Play the cassette again. Students check the stresses on the board. Play the cassette again, if there are problems. Explain that several answers are possible. Placing the stress on different words changes the emphasis on the sentence. In order to illustrate this point (contrastive stress) take the example of:

I phoned you yesterday morning (and not John or Ann)

and contrast it with

I phoned you yesterday morning (and not the day before yesterday)

By playing the situation in front of the students.

Play the cassette again. Students listen and repeat.

c) Activity 3 (20 minutes)

Remind students of the two intonation patterns. Students look at the examples. Ask them Where does the intonation go up? (Yes/ no questions) Where does it go down (Statements).

Play the cassette. Students listen. For each sentence, they hear some sounds first, then real words. Play the cassette again. Students say if it’s a question or a statement. You might like to pause the cassette after the sounds to see if students can give an answer from the intonation alone.

Play the cassette again. Students listen and repeat.

3.2. Variations

In activity 2 stage b), you might like to get the students clap their hands once they hear the stressed syllable, so that they might become more aware of the different stress patterns.

3.3. Follow-un activities:

Look al activity 3. – Prepare a set of eight sentences to be written on the blackboard on the following day Practice their correct intonation. You will read them out in front of he students the following day

4. ASSESSMENT

Two different kinds of assessment will take place in order to gauge how well the student did in achieving the aims proposed:

4.1. Informal assessment.

It will cover:

1. Linguistic factors:

· Being able to identify the different stress patterns sounds with reasonable accuracy.

· Being able to reproduce them intelligibly and unambiguously.

2. Non-linguistic ones:

· Attitude

· Organisation of work, independence, etc.

The results will not only be assessed but also discussed with the students in order to maximise their learning potential in all aspects of their learning experience.

4.2. Formal tests. –

They are to be seen as a complement to informal assessment and an opportunity for students to find out how they are progressing, think about their problems and do something about them.

In the case of our topic-based unit, some discrete-item exercises could be devised in the middle and at the end of the term in order to check how well the students assimilated the most outstanding contents included in the unit.

A possible approach would be, for example, to include an exercise having a format identical to Activity 2 in order to check his ability to identify word stress patterns, and another one just like Activity 2 so that we are able to gauge his ability to identify distinctive sentence intonation patterns.

The minimal pass mark for the exercise should be 50% of the possible score.

Publicado: marzo 13, 2019 por Laura Gonzalez

Etiquetas: tema 9 inglés secundaria