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Topic 10C – The lexicon. Characteristics of word-formation in english. Prefixation, suffixation, composition

Process by which a base is somehow modified to produce a new lexical item.

Base: form to which a rule of word formation is applied. NATIONAL NATIONALIZATION. CAREFUL CAREFULNESS

Stem: part of the word remaining after every affix has been removed. NATION. CARE.

3 processes of word-formation:

affixation Base + prefix

Base + suffix

Compounding: adding one base to another football

Conversion assigning the base to a different word-class

PREFIXATION

DEFINITION: prefixes are particles which can be added before the base, but which have no independent existence.

AMORAL

CHARACTERISTICS:

They are semi-independent:

Phonetically, the prefixes don´t vary:

Undo /An´du/

Have some stress (but –a)

,de´frost

rarely alter the word-class of the base:

overdone

NEGATIVE

   

UN

Not

Undone

Unfair

Unrevealed

Unusual

DIS

Not

Displaced

Dislike

Dishonest

NON

Not

Non-conformist

Non-stop

Nonsense

IN IL IR IM

Not

Insane

Illegal

Irreverent

Impolite

A(N)

Lacking of

Amoral

Aseptic

Anormal

REVERSATIVE OR PRIVATIVE

 

UN-

Reverse action

Untie

Undo

Uncurl

DIS-

Reverse action

Disconnect

Discoloured

Discontent

DE-

Reverse action

Defrost

Deforest

PEJORATIVE

   

MIS

Wrongly

Misleading

Misunderstand

Mislead

MAL

Bad

Maladapted

PSEUDO

False

Pseudo-scientific

Pseudo-intelligence

OF DEGREE OR SIZE

   

ARCH

Highest

Archduke

Arch-enemy

SUPER

Better

Superman

Supermarket

supernatural

OUT

Better

Outrun

Outlive

Outgrow

OVER

Too much

Overdone

Overdress

Overbooking

SUR

Over, above

Surtax

Surcharge

Surpass

HYPER

Very

Hypercritical

Hyperactive

ULTRA

Very

Ultra-violet

Ultra-violence

MAXI

Large

Maxi-skirt

UNDER

Too little

Undercook

Undertax

Undervalue

Underpay

SUB

Less than

Subhuman

Subnormal

MINI

Little

Mini-skirt

OF ATTITUDE

   

CO

With

Cooperate

Coproduction

COUNTER

Against

Counteract

Counter-revolution

ANTI

Against

Anti-american

Antiracist

Antinuclear

PRO

For

Pro-vietnam

Pro-abort

LOCATIVE

   

SUPER

Over

Superstructure

SUB

Under

Subway

Subconscious

INTER

Between, among

Interaction

International

TRANS

across

Transplant

Transnational

Transatlantic

TIME AND ORDER

   

FORE

Before

Foretell

PRE

Before

Precaution

Pre-war

Pre-marital

POST

After

Post-war

Post-marital

Post-date

EX

Former

Expresident

Exhusband

RE

Again

Rebuild

Reconstruction

Regain

NUMBER

   

UNI

MONO

One

Mono-directional

Mono-theism

Uni-directional

Uni-sex

BI

DI

2

Bicycle

Bilingual

Dichotomy

Digamy

TRI

3

Tripartite

Triangle

Traident

MULTI

POLY

Many

Multi-function

Multi-coloured

Multi-form

Polysillabic

Polyphonic

Polysemi

CONVERSION PREFIXES

   

BE

Form verbs

Bewigged (que lleva peluca)

Bewitch fascinar, encantar

Becalm calmar

Bedazzle deslumbrar

EN

Form verbs

Endanger

Enwrap (envolver)

Entwist enroscar

Entail

A

Adjectives

Ashore

Afloat

Aboard

OTHER

   

AUTO

Self

Autobiography

NEO

New

Neo-platonism

PAN

All

Pan-american

PROTO

First, original

Proto-type

SEMI

Half

Semicircle

VICE

Deputy

Vicepresident

SUFFIXATION

DEF: suffixes are particles which can be added after the base to form a new word, but which have no independent existence.

Suffixes: semantic value

Inflections:grammatical value (er, s, ed ing)

CHARACTERISTICS:

Alter the word-class of the base.

Haven´t distinct meaning of his own.

Modify (-ish), or convert (-ness)

TO FORM NOUNS

OCCUPATIONAL

   

DIMINUTIVE OR FEMENINE

   

STATUS, DOMAIN, ETC

   

STER

EER

Ocupation

Gangster

Engineer

LET

SMALL

STARLET

HOOD

STATUS

BROTHERHOOD

CHILDHOOD

ER

Profession

Inhabitant

Banker

NYer

ETTE

SMALL, COMPACT

IMITATION

FEMALE

CIGARETTE

FLANNELETTE (imitation of flannel)

USHERETTE (azafata)

SHIP

STATUS

FRIENDSHIP

DICTATORSHIP

HARDSHIP

     

ESS

FEMALE

WAITRESS

DOM

DOMAIN, COLLECTIVITY

KINGDOM

CHRISTANDOM

     

Y

FAMILIAR CONTEXTS

DADDY

CRACY

GOVERNMENT

PLUTOCRACY

DEMOCRACY

ARISTOCRACY

   

LING

YOUTH

DUCKLING

NURSELING

SEEDLING

WEAKLING (CANIJO)

RY

BEHAVIOUR

COLLECTIVITY

SLAVERY

MACHINERY

NURSERY

NOUN/ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES

ITE

MEMBER OF

ISRAELITE, STALINITE

OTHER

   

   

AN

BELONGING TO

INDONESIAN

REPUBLICAN

JAMAICAN

ING

SUBSTANCE

OF BASE

Panelling

Shipping

     

ESE

NATIONALITY

CHINESE PORTUGHES

FULL

amount

Mouthfull

Handfull

     

ISM

MOVEMENT

IDEALISM

COMMUNISM

           

IST

OCCUPATION

ATTITUDE

SOCIALIST

NOVELIST

IDEALIST

           

DEVERBAL

   

DE-ADJECTIVAL

         

ER OR

AGENTIVE, INSTRUMENTAL

DRIVER

SAILOR

NESS

STATE QUALITY

HAPPINESS

     

ANT

AGENTIVE INSTRUMENTAL

INHABITANT

DISINFECTANT

ITY

STATE QUALITY

FELICITY

SANITY

     

E

E

PASSIVE

EMPLOYEE

ADDRESSEE

           

ATION

STATE ACTION

EXPLORATION

ORGANIZATION

           

MENT

STATE ACTION

ARRANGEMENT

AMUSEMENT

           

AL

ACTION

TRIAL

REFUSAL

           

ING

ACTIVITY

DRIVING

PAINTING

BOXING

WRESTLING

           

AGE

ACTIVITY

DRAINAGE

COINAGE

           

TO FORM VERBS

VERY FEW

               

IFY

CAUSATIVE

SIMPLIFY

CLARIFY

           

IZE

CAUSATIVE

POPULARIZE

ORGANIZE

           

EN

CAUSATIVE

STRENGTHEN

WIDEN

DEAFEN

           

TO FORM ADJECTIVES

FROM NOUNS

   

IN NEO CLASSICAL WORDS

   

OTHER

   

FUL

Having

Useful

AL,

 

CRIMINAL

EDITORIAL

MUSICAL

ABLE

PASSIVE

READABLE

RELIABLE

LESS

Not having

Homeless

IC

 

HEROIC

ARABIC

ED

GAVING

POINTED

SHAPED

LY

Having

Manly

heavenly Cowardly

IVE

 

SENSITIVE

AFIRMATIVE

ACTIVE

FOLD

MULTIPLIED BY

MANYFOLD

TWOFOLD

LIKE

Having

Ladylike

OUS

 

AMBITIOUS

MARVELLOUS

SPLENDOROUS

     

Y

Like

Creamy

Shinny

           

ISH

Belonging to

Reddish

Youngish

           

IAN

In the tradition of

darwinian

           

TO FORM ADVERBS

 

LY

 

HAPPILY

 

WARDS

 

BACKWARDS

 

WISE

 

SIDEWISE

 
                       

COMPOUND WORDS

DEFINITION: combination of two or more words functioning as a unit.

CHARACTERISTICS:

Occurs among all parts of speech, with the exception of articles.

Spelling:

Washing machine flower pot

Tax-free flower-pot

Toothache flowerpot

Stress:

´black,bird (species of bird)

,black´bird (a bird which is black).

The meaning cannot always be deduced from the separate meaning of its parts.

Quirk hot dog ?

GROUPS

APPOSITIONAL

Fellow travellers

Neighbour kings

Menservants

womenservants

TITLE-NAME

Mr. Johnsons

TITLE-TITLE

Lords lieutenants

Knight templars

SUBST-ADJ

Iron maiden

SUBST-PREP-SUBST

Sons in law, men at work

Jack in the boxes, slug a boxes

ADJ-PREP-SUBST

Good for nothings

Light o´loves

VERB – ADVERB/PREP

Breaks down

Breaks away

Cut offs

Go betweens

Shakedowns

VERBAL NOUN –ER +ADVERB

Bringers up

Lookers on

Standers by

VERBAL NOUN –ING + ADVERB

VERB + OBJECT

Overalls

Afternoons

At homes

OTHER VERB PHRASE COMPOUNDS

Merry-go-rounds

Stay-at-homes

Thank yous

FULL

Handfuls

Bagfuls

Spoonfuls

AND

Whiskey(s) and sodas

White and greys

OTHERS

Nothing elses

What nots