Didactic unit 1 – How often do you choose a Prime Minister?

Didactic unit 1 – How often do you choose a Prime Minister?

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn about British history and politics.

– To learn to write an interview within the global focus of the term on describing and asking.

– To learn to describe and ask in the present, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Present tenses (simple, continuous and perfect)

– Vocabulary: History and politics

– Phonetics: Word stress

– Writing: Interview

– Communication: Describing and asking

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about British history and politics.

– To be able to use the present tenses in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on word stress.

– To be able to write an interview correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

The dream that wouldn’t go away

On the night of 15 May 1979, David Booth of Cincinnati, USA, suddenly woke up screaming, ‘It’s going to crash!’ He had just had a terrifying real nightmare. In it he saw an American Airlines jet with three engines trying to land. The plane then suddenly rolled over on its back and crashed in flames.

‘It was like I was standing there, watching the whole thing’, Booth said later.

For the next seven nights, he had the same dream. Finally, on May 22, he decided to ring American Airlines. They said they couldn’t justify grounding their whole fleet of aircraft simply because of one man’s recurring dream. Booth couldn’t argue with that. Nevertheless, he rang Cincinnati Airport. There he was taken more seriously. An airport official, Ray Pinkerton, said later, ‘He certainly didn’t sound like some kind of crank so we asked him to come in and describe his dream in more detail’.

On May 24, Booth was interviewed by Pinkerton and his assistant Paul Williams for 45 minutes. The entire interview was tape-recorded.

Williams later commented, ‘The plane he described was either a Boeing 727 or a Douglas DC10 belonging to American Airlines. He then described exactly how it crashed. He became quite upset, almost as if he’d seen people dying’.

Pinkerton and Williams were both impressed by Booth’s story and his obvious sincerity. But they agreed there was nothing they could do, except keep the tape recording.

The very next day, 25 May, American Airlines flight 191, a three-engine DC10, was given permission to land at O’Hare Airport, Chicago. It was 300 feet off the ground when the plane suddenly turned sharply, rolled over on its back, dived and then crashed in a mass of flames. 273 people were on board. There were no survivors.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer these questions in your own words.

a. What did David Booth dream about?

b. Why were the officials at American Airlines unable to do anything?

c. How did Pinkerton prove that Booth had predicted the crash?

d. What happened the day after Booth’s discussion with Pinkerton and Williams?

2. Find words in the text that mean the same as these expressions.

a. bad dream

b. madman

PRONUNCIATION: WORD STRESS 10 min. (1st session)

There are some rules to help you pronounce long words, e.g.

a. Don’t stress a prefix.

b. Words ending in -ion have the stress on the penultimate syllable.

Exercise:

1. Underline the stress on these long words.

a. discrimination

b. unimaginative

c. engineering

d. uncommunicative

e. consequently

f. irresponsible

g. fundamental

h. opportunity

i. relationships

j. interpreter

k. communication

l. prehistoric

m. repetitive

n. architecture

o. predominant

p. immature

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. ‘There is no truth in fortune-telling or astrology’. Do you agree?

b. ‘Everyone needs to know how to use a computer’. What do you think?

c. ‘Space research is a waste of money’. Do you agree?

GRAMMAR: PRESENT TENSES 30 min. (2nd session)

There are several types of present tenses according to their communicative function:

Present simple:

Function:

– Habits or routines: something you usually do.

Form:

– 3rd person singular -s in the affirmative

– Auxiliary do/does in negative and interrogative

Examples:

I study at school. / He studies at school.

– ­I don’t study at school. / He doesn’t study at school.

Do you study at school? / Does he study at school.

Clues:

Everyday, every

– Frequency adverbs: always, usually, often, sometimes, never.

Present continuous:

Function:

– Something you are doing right now.

– Emphasize the duration of an activity you are doing right now.

Form:

– Auxiliary to be in the present + verb in -ing

Examples:

I am leaving school. / He is leaving school.

I am not leaving school. / He is not leaving school.

Are you leaving school? / Is he leaving school?

Clues:

Now, at the moment

Present perfect simple with present value:

Function:

– An action that started in the past but continues in the present.

– An action that has just happened.

Form:

– Auxiliary have / has (3rd sing.) + past participle

Examples:

I have lived here since 2008. / He has lived here since 2008.

I have lived here for two years. / He hasn’t lived here for two years.

I have just eaten.

Clues:

For, since, just

Present perfect continuous:

Function:

– An action that started in the past but continues, emphasizing its duration.

Form:

– Auxiliary have/has + participle of verb to be + main verb in -ing

Examples:

I have been waiting for two hours.

I haven’t been waiting for two hours.

Have you been waiting for two hours?

Exercises:

1. Correct the mistake in each sentence.

a. It’s the best book I ever read.

b. I play football since I was a little boy.

c. We are together for six years.

d. I have known her since a long time.

e. You already have told me.

f. Did he pass his driving test yet?

g. Last month they’ve driven to Morocco.

h. I don’t see you for ages! How are you?

2. Put the verb in brackets in the past simple or present perfect and complete the questions.

a. When ______ he ______? (arrive)

b. ______ you ______ yet? (finish)

c. A. How long______ ______ ______ here? (live) – B. All my life.

d. What time ______ ______ ______ ______ today? (get up)

e. A. ______ you ever ______ octopus? (eat) – B. No, I don’t like seafood.

f. ______ you ______ the film last night? (see)

g. ______ you ______ Brad Pitt’s new film? (see)

h. What’s the best novel you ______ ever ______? (read)

3. Circle the correct answer.

a. She’s furious with her husband because he’s been crashing / crashed their new car.

b. He’s hot because he’s been running / run in the park.

c. How long have you been having / had your laptop?

d. They’ve just bought / been buying a new semi-detached house.

e. She’s already been making / made her wedding dress.

f. That was the best documentary I’ve ever been seeing / seen.

g. I have been writing / written letters all morning.

h. How many times have you seen / been seeing that film?

i. We’ve known / been knowing them for years.

j. How long have you waited / been waiting here?

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen to a recorded guide for tourists to Madame Tussaud’s, about Henry VIII’s other wives. Fill in the chart. In the last column, write died, beheaded, divorced, survived.

 

Description

Children

How long

the marriage lasted

What happened

to her

1.Catherine

of Aragon

       

2.Anne Boleyn

       

3.Jane Seymour

       

4. Anne

of Cleves

       

5.Katherine Howard

Pretty, naive, empty-headed

None

About a year and a half

Beheaded

6.Katherine Parr

       

VOCABULARY: HISTORY AND POLITICS 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Read and complete the gaps.

arms Civil War defeat dictatorship executed leader monarchy revolution rule surrender

In 1642 Charles I was the king of England, but he argued with his parliament, who questioned the absolute power of the ________. The result was the English ________, which divided the country in two. The King’s forces had more money and ________, but the Parliamentary army had a better ________, Oliver Cromwell. The war lasted four years and ended in victory for parliament and ________ for the King, who ________ in 1646. King Charles was sentenced to death and ________ in January 1649 when his head was cut off with an axe. Cromwell became Lord Protector, a kind of ________, and his ________ was one of the strictest in English history. Cromwell died in 1658 and the ________ ended in 1660, when the monarchy was restored and the King’s son was crowned Charles II.

2. Write USA, UK, Both, or Neither.

a. There is a Prime Minister (PM) but not a President. ________

b. There are 659 Members of Parliament (MPs). ________

c. There are two houses of Congress: the Senate and the House of Representatives. ________

d. There are only two main political parties. ________

e. Government policy has to be approved by the Queen. ________

f. The left-wing party is called the Labour party. ________

g. The right-wing party is called the Republican party. ________

h. It is a republic. ________

i. There is a Royal Family. ________

j. The government is a dictatorship. ________

k. All citizens who are over 18 can vote. ________

l. It is a multi-ethnic society. ________

m. Elections are held every three years. ________

n. Some regions have autonomous government. ________

Which sentences are true for your country?

WRITING: INTERVIEW 30 min. (3rd session)

An interview with Annie Lennox

I interviewed Annie at her home in North London. She was wearing casual clothes and was very friendly, which helped me to relax, as I’d been feeling a bit nervous.

Q1 ___________________

A. Because I wanted to spend more time with my children. When I was in the studios I was always missing them, and I decided that they were more important than my music. Also I didn’t enjoy all the press attention. So I became a mother and a housewife – a different world.

Q2 ___________________

A. Yes, I loved it. I made lots of friends with other mothers and neighbours, and could live a completely normal life.

Q3 ___________________

A. He supported my decision and in fact our roles reversed, as before when I was with the Eurythmics he was at home a lot, but while I was at home he started his own production company for documentary films.

Q4 ___________________

A. Who knows? Maybe one day I will. When I’m ready.

A year after this interview Annie Lennox made a comeback and has continued to make albums and tour ever since.

Tips for writing an interview:

a. Write an introductory paragraph by briefly describing where the interview took place, and describing the person.

b. Write the questions first. Four or five will probably be enough. Try to make them lead on from each other. Make the last question something about the future.

c. Make a clear separation (by leaving space or using a different typeface) between the questions and the answers.

Exercises:

1. Write the questions appropriate for the answers in the interview with Annie Lennox.

2. Write an interview for a magazine with a celebrity (real or invented) or with another pop singer you know about, called Interview with (name of the celebrity).

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about the British history.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about the British history.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Correct the mistake in each sentence.

a. It’s the best book I ever read.

b. I play football since I was a little boy.

c. We are together for six years.

d. I have known her since a long time.

e. You already have told me.

f. Did he pass his driving test yet?

g. Last month they’ve driven to Morocco.

h. I don’t see you for ages! How are you?

Vocabulary (2 points):

Read and complete the gaps.

arms Civil War defeat dictatorship executed leader monarchy revolution rule surrender

In 1642 Charles I was the king of England, but he argued with his parliament, who questioned the absolute power of the ________. The result was the English ________, which divided the country in two. The King’s forces had more money and ________, but the Parliamentary army had a better ________, Oliver Cromwell. The war lasted four years and ended in victory for parliament and ________ for the King, who ________ in 1646. King Charles was sentenced to death and ________ in January 1649 when his head was cut off with an axe. Cromwell became Lord Protector, a kind of ________, and his ________ was one of the strictest in English history. Cromwell died in 1658 and the ________ ended in 1660, when the monarchy was restored and the King’s son was crowned Charles II.

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

‘Everyone needs to know how to use a computer’. What do you think?

Writing (2 points):

‘Space research is a waste of money’. Do you agree?

Tapescript of the dictation:

For the next seven nights, he had the same dream. Finally, on May 22, he decided to ring American Airlines. They said they couldn’t justify grounding their whole fleet of aircraft simply because of one man’s recurring dream. Booth couldn’t argue with that. Nevertheless, he rang Cincinnati Airport. There he was taken more seriously. An airport official, Ray Pinkerton, said later, ‘He certainly didn’t sound like some kind of crank so we asked him to come in and describe his dream in more detail’.

DIDACTIC UNIT 2

Have you ever been abroad?

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn about British education and learning process.

– To learn to write a biography within the global focus of the term on describing and asking.

– To learn to describe and ask in the past, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Past tenses (simple, continuous and perfect)

– Vocabulary: Education and learning

– Phonetics: Regular and irregular past

– Writing: Biography

– Communication: Describing and asking

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about British education and learning process.

– To be able to use the past tenses in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on regular and irregular past.

– To be able to write a biography correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Eton college: a school for the privileged few

Only seven per cent of British pupils go to private schools but most members of Britain’s ruling class were educated at them. Most famous of all private schools in Eton College, founded in 1440.

Eton has changed. In the past, a boy would probably get into the school if his parents had put his name down at birth. Having a father and grandfather who had been to the school also helped. Nowadays, unless he passes the tough entrance exam, he won’t get in. And if he does, academic competition is fierce. Most pupils spend at least eight hours a day studying.

While it is true that the boys are more intelligent, their parents still have to be rich. The fees are about £15,000 a year. A third of the boys have fathers who were at school but many of the others are from families with newer money.

What are parents paying for? All boys have their own study-bedrooms. The facilities are superb: dozens of playing-field, two swimming-pools, a golf-course, a theatre and 26 science laboratories. The teaching is excellent, with classes averaging fifteen pupils.

Not everything is up-to-date though. The uniform has not changed for centuries. Pupils wear a tailcoat, black waistcoat, pinstripe trousers, a stiff collar and white tie (some privileged boys can wear bow-ties). The penalty for incorrect dress is a fine.

While there have been changes, Eton is still a passport to a privileged future. Few boys can fail to be successful given the school’s facilities and the social prestige that having been there confers on its ex-pupils.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Are these statements true or false? Give reasons for your answers.

a. Most British children go to private schools.

b. Boys with family connections to Eton do not have to take the entrance exam.

c. Some classes may have fewer than fifteen students.

d. It is important to wear the right clothes at Eton.

2. Write a summary of the text in about 50 words.

3. Find words in the text that mean the same as these words and expressions.

a. difficult

b. money paid for education

PRONUNCIATION: REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PAST 10 min. (1st session)

Regular verbs pronunciation in the past:

/d/

/t/

/id/

Verbs ending in

voiced sounds

verbs ending in

unvoiced sounds

Verbs ending in

/t/ or /d/ sound

lived

worked

wanted

Irregular verbs pronunciation in the past:

Be careful with the pronunciation of the vowels, as some of them are not pronounced (buid-built-built).

Exercises:

1. Classify the following regular verbs according to the pronunciation of the “-ed”.

walked started managed switched performed

added arrived founded replayed

/d/

/t/

/id/

     
     
     

2. Classify the following irregular verbs according to the pronunciation of the vowels.

driven grown hurt lay meant paid said bought

sunk told weren’t won wore written

/ei/

/i/

/әu/

/o:/

/o/

/e/

/3:/

ate

built

chosen

caught

done

dreamt

heard

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

b. Write a dialogue between the secretary at Eton College and a parent who is asking about the facilities and fees at the school.

c. ‘There should be no private schools. All children should go to state schools’. Do you agree?

GRAMMAR: PAST TENSES 30 min. (2nd session)

There are several types of past tenses according to their communicative function:

Past simple:

Function:

– An action that happened in the past and, so, is finished.

– Something you usually did in the past.

Form:

-ed (regular verbs) or 2nd column (irregular verbs)

– Auxiliary did for negatives and interrogatives

– Past habit: used to / didn’t use to + infinitive

Examples:

I played football yesterday. / I went to the park yesterday.

I didn’t play football yesterday.

Did you play football yesterday?

I used to play football when I was a child.

I didn’t use to play football when I was a child.

Did you use to play football when you were a child?

Clues:

Yesterday, last, ago

Past continuous:

Function:

– Something you were doing in a specific moment in the past, emphasizing its duration.

– A short action that interrupted a long action in the past.

Form:

– Auxiliary to be in the past + verb in -ing

Examples:

I was reading a book when you arrived.

I wasn’t reading a book.

Were you reading a book?

Clues:

When, while

Present perfect simple with past value:

Function:

– Something you have already done.

– A past action, but when the exact time is not important.

Form:

– Auxiliary have/has + past participle

Examples:

I have already eaten.

I still haven’t eaten.

I haven’t eaten yet.

Have you ever eaten?

Clues:

Already, still, yet, ever

Past perfect simple:

Function:

– A past action, previous to another action in the past; it is the past of the past or remote past.

Form:

– Auxiliary had + past participle

Examples:

I had already left when you arrived.

I hadn’t left.

Had you left?

Clues:

When, before

Past perfect continuous:

Function:

– A past action, previous to another action in the past, but emphasizing its duration.

Form:

– Auxiliary had + to be in participle + main verb in –ing

Examples:

I had been waiting for you.

I hadn’t been waiting for you.

Had you been waiting for me?

Exercises:

1. Circle the correct verb form(s) in these sentences. (Sometimes two are possible.)

a. When I was younger I took / used to take / was taking medicine every time I had a cold, but now I see a homeopathic doctor.

b. Last year they had / used to have / were having their first hit record and now they’re planning a tour.

c. My father used to live / usually lives / was living in France when he met / used to meet / was meeting my mother.

d. My grandmother had / used to have / was having a stroke last year.

e. My doctor usually prescribes / used to prescribe / was prescribing tablets for my headaches, but they don’t always work.

f. When we lived in Hong Kong we often watched / used to watch / were watching CNN to keep in touch with the world news.

g. Nowadays a lot of teenagers usually listen / used to listen / listened to their iPods every day.

h. When my sister was pregnant, she felt / used to feel / was feeling sick every morning.

2. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with used to/didn’t use to, or is/isn’t used to + the verb in the correct form.

A

a. He ________________ however he liked, but now he has to wear a suit. (dress)

b. Before, he ________________ sleep anywhere, but not he ________________ in a comfortable bed. (be able to, sleep)

c. He ________________ people in authority when he was a punk. (look up to)

B

d. She ________________ from 9 to 5, but now she works all hours. (work)

e. She ________________ very much money, but now she’s a millionaire. (have)

f. She ________________ shy, but now ________________ lots of people at parties. (be, meet)

3. Find and correct the mistake in each sentence.

a. What was you searching for on the Internet?

______________________________

b. Why you had a day off last week?

______________________________

c. While Julia looked round the house, her ex-husband suddenly arrived.

______________________________

d. Ten minutes after she has taken the sleeping pills, she fell asleep.

______________________________

e. I was downloading my email when suddenly my computer was breaking down.

______________________________

f. What was writing down the journalist during the interview?

______________________________

g. We hadn’t enough time to finish the exercise.

______________________________

h. The plane already landed when I arrived at the airport to pick up my friend.

______________________________

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. You’re going to hear an interview with a journalist from a music magazine talking about Abba. First listen and write down the seven questions the interviewer asks.

a. ____________________ ?

b. ____________________ ?

c. ____________________ ?

d. ____________________ ?

e. ____________________ ?

f. ____________________ ?

g. ____________________ ?

2. Now listen again for more detail. What exactly does the journalist say about…?

a. the song titles and lyrics

b. Agnetha’s attitude to touring

c. stories the tabloid press made up

d. Annie-Frid’s father

e. Björn and Agnetha’s divorce

f. Agnetha after Abba split up

g. how often they still meet

VOCABULARY: EDUCATION AND LEARNING 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a. Jack decided to take a course/lesson in hotel management.

b. Sheila always got good marks/points in algebra.

c. After leaving school, Ann studied/trained as a teacher.

d. Peter decided not to go in/enter for the examination.

e. My sister learned/taught me how to draw.

f. I can’t come to the cinema. I have to read/study for a test.

g. In history we had to learn a lot of dates by hand/heart.

h. I hope your work will improve by the end of the course/term.

i. Martin failed/missed his maths exam and had to sit it again.

j. If you have any questions, raise/rise your hand.

2. Complete each sentence with a word beginning as shown. Each space represents one letter.

a. Charles has a good k _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of the subject.

b. These children are badly behaved! They need more d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

c. Everyone agrees that a good e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is important.

d. If you don’t know a word, look it up in your d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

e. Maths is easy if you are allowed to use a c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

f. Keith spent four years studying at u _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

g. Some apes seem to have as much i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ as humans!

h. I find listening c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ tests rather difficult.

i. At the age of eleven I went to s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ school.

WRITING: BIOGRAPHY 30 min. (3rd session)

A biography of Oscar Wilde

Oscar Wilde was born ___ Dublin ___ 16th October 1854. He went to school in Enniskillen, and ___ he was 17 he went to Trinity College Dublin. Three years ___ he went to Oxford University. He wrote his firs poem ___ he was travelling in Italy during the summer vacation.

Immediately ___ leaving Oxford he moved to London, where he lived ___ the next 18 years. He married Constance Lloyd in 1884 and they had two sons. Wilde’s first big success came in 1892 with his play ‘Lady Windermere’s Fan’, and he soon became famous for plays like ‘An Ideal Husband’ and ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’, and his novel ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’. However ___ 1895 he was arrested for immoral behaviour, because of his intimate friendship with Lord Alfred Douglas, and was sentenced to two years in prison. ___ his imprisonment he wrote one of his most beautiful works, ‘De profundis’.

___ he was released from prison he went to live in France, where he died ___ 30th November 1900, a broken man.

Tips for writing a biography:

a. Write at least three paragraphs, one for the birth and early years, one (or two) for the middle years, and one for the last years.

b. Link events with time expressions (Immediately after).

c. Use narrative tenses. If the person you’re writing about is still alive, you may want to use Since + present perfect in the last paragraph (Since he retired he’s spent a lot of time travelling.).

d. Be careful with prepositions of time.

Exercises:

1. Complete the biography of Oscar Wile with prepositions from the list.

after (x2) during for in (x2) later on when while

2. Write a biography of a historical person you find interesting or an older person you know well, e.g. a grandparent.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about education and learning.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about education and learning.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Circle the correct verb form(s) in these sentences. (Sometimes two are possible.)

a. When I was younger I took / used to take / was taking medicine every time I had a cold, but now I see a homeopathic doctor.

b. Last year they had / used to have / were having their first hit record and now they’re planning a tour.

c. My father used to live / usually lives / was living in France when he met / used to meet / was meeting my mother.

d. My grandmother had / used to have / was having a stroke last year.

e. My doctor usually prescribes / used to prescribe / was prescribing tablets for my headaches, but they don’t always work.

f. When we lived in Hong Kong we often watched / used to watch / were watching CNN to keep in touch with the world news.

g. Nowadays a lot of teenagers usually listen / used to listen / listened to their iPods every day.

h. When my sister was pregnant, she felt / used to feel / was feeling sick every morning.

Vocabulary (2 points):

Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a. Jack decided to take a course/lesson in hotel management.

b. Sheila always got good marks/points in algebra.

c. After leaving school, Ann studied/trained as a teacher.

d. Peter decided not to go in/enter for the examination.

e. My sister learned/taught me how to draw.

f. I can’t come to the cinema. I have to read/study for a test.

g. In history we had to learn a lot of dates by hand/heart.

h. I hope your work will improve by the end of the course/term.

i. Martin failed/missed his maths exam and had to sit it again.

j. If you have any questions, raise/rise your hand.

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

‘There should be no private schools. All children should go to state schools’. Do you agree?

Writing (2 points):

Write a dialogue between the secretary at Eton College and a parent who is asking about the facilities and fees at the school.

Tapescript of the dictation:

Eton has changed. In the past, a boy would probably get into the school if his parents had put his name down at birth. Having a father and grandfather who had been to the school also helped. Nowadays, unless he passes the tough entrance exam, he won’t get in. And if he does, academic competition is fierce. Most pupils spend at least eight hours a day studying.

DIDACTIC UNIT 3

It will have already been updated.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about science and computers.

– To learn to write an e-mail within the global focus of the term on describing and asking.

– To learn to describe and ask in the future, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Future tenses (will, going to, present simple, present continuous, future continuous and future perfect)

– Vocabulary: Science and computers

– Phonetics: Long/short vowels

– Writing: E-mail

– Communication: Describing and asking

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about science and computers.

– To be able to use the future tenses in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on long and short vowels.

– To be able to write an e-mail correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Animal astronauts

Space scientists will soon be choosing two cosmonauts to spend six months in space. The aim of the experiment is to measure the effect of weightlessness, or zero gravity, on bones, muscles and nerves. With a bit of luck, the cosmonauts will return safely to earth. It is a routine experiment which the media would normally take no interest in at all, except for one thing – the cosmonauts are rhesus monkeys.

The experiment has provoked discussion in the Press yet again of whether or not we have the right to use animals, particularly monkeys, for scientific experiments. The monkeys will each have eight electrodes implanted in their brains, wires buried in their leg muscles and thermometers placed inside their stomachs. They will, in addition, be kept completely immobile for months on end.

An American group called PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) argue that it is morally wrong to send monkeys into space because, while human astronauts make a decision to go into space, monkeys clearly do not. They also point out that the cruelty is completely unnecessary. We already know, they say, all that we need to know about the effects of space travel.

Space scientists, meanwhile, argue that they can learn a lot. They need to establish why prolonged weightlessness, or zero gravity, is so damaging to humans, why astronauts in space lose one per cent of their bone a month and why they suffer serious deterioration of their muscle tissue. If this phenomenon is not completely understood and solutions found, they say, space exploration by humans will still be a dream and much that we could find out about our universe will remain a mystery.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. According to the text, are these statements true or false? Give reasons for your answers.

a. The Press is not interested in this flight.

b. The flight will probably be uncomfortable for the monkeys.

c. PETA argue that it is not ethical for us to put monkeys into space.

d. The experiments are being done to learn about the effects of space travel on humans.

2. Answer these questions in your own words.

a. According to PETA, why is the experiment unnecessary?

b. According to space scientists, why do we need to understand the effects of space travel.

c. Rewrite the sentence using should(n’t) have: Scientists were wrong to send monkeys into space.

PRONUNCIATION: LONG/SHORT VOWELS 10 min. (1st session)

You have to make an effort to distinguish between long and short vowel sounds. If you can’t decide by instinct if a vowel is long or short, use a dictionary to check. Remember that /:/ = a long sound, e.g. tree /tri:/. Normally, if there is an “r” the vowel is lengthened and the r is silent.

Exercises:

1. Look at the sound symbol. Practise saying the pairs of short and corresponding long sounds. Write more examples.

/i/

/i:/

/æ/

/a:/

/o/

/o:/

/u/

/u:/

/С/

/3:/

fish

tree

cat

car

clock

horse

bull

boot

computer

bird

2. Say the words in the list. Decide if the underlined letters make a long or short vowel sound. Mark them S or L.

battle business castle childhood course proof

exhausted gossip guilty heart huge leader

manage murder plot power success world woman technique

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. What are the arguments for and against trying out cosmetics on animals?

b. What are the advantages and disadvantages of space travel?

c. What are the arguments for and against vegetarianism?

GRAMMAR: FUTURE TENSES 30 min. (2nd session)

There are several types of future tenses according to their communicative function:

Will:

Function:

– An unplanned or not sure future action

– A future prediction

– An immediate decision

Form:

– Auxiliary will / won’t + infinitive

Examples:

I will go to the cinema.

I won’t go to the cinema.

Will you go to the cinema?

Clues:

I think, maybe

Going to:

Function:

– A planned future action, something you have the intention to do.

Form:

– Auxiliary to be going to + infinitive

Examples:

I am going to travel to London. / He is going to travel to London.

I am not going to travel to London.

Are you going to travel to London?

Clues:

Tomorrow, next, the following

Present continuous with future value:

Function:

– A very sure planned future action, an arrangement.

Form:

– Auxiliary to be + verb in ­-ing

Examples:

I am having dinner with my friends tonight.

I am not having dinner.

Are you having dinner?

Clues:

Tonight, tomorrow, next

Present simple with future value:

Function:

– A planned future action that follows an official timetable.

Form:

– 3rd sing -s

– Auxiliary do/does in negative and interrogative

Examples:

– The next train leaves at 3 o’clock pm.

– The next train doesn’t leave.

– Does the next train leave?

Clues:

At 3 o’clock

Future continuous:

Function:

– A future action in progress, emphasizing its duration.

Form:

– Auxiliary will + be + verb in ­-ing

Examples:

I will be sunbathing tomorrow at 3 o’clock pm.

I won’t be sunbathing.

Will you be sunbathing?

Future perfect:

Function:

– An action that will have already taken place.

– An action that will be completed in a specific time in the future.

Form:

– Auxiliary will + have + past participle

Examples:

I will have arrived to London at 3 o’clock pm.

I won’t have arrived.

Will you have arrived?

Clues:

When, by

Exercises:

1. Right (√) or wrong (χ)? Correct the wrong sentences.

a. If the weather forecast is wrong again tomorrow, I don’t watch it any more.

b. He’s going to see the specialist as soon as he’ll get the result of his tests.

c. I always get stressed if people shout at me.

d. They make up their minds as soon as they’ve looked round the house tomorrow.

e. Come and see me when you are feeling better.

f. If your headache will get worse, you should go to bed.

g. I’m going to write down your number in case I’ll need it.

h. He never goes to the doctor unless he’s feeling really terrible.

2. Circle the correct verb form(s) in these sentences. (Sometimes two are possible.)

a. Computer scientists predict that the new virus is going to affect / is affecting / will affect at least two million PCs in the next two days.

b. I may meet / I’m meeting / I’ll meet my girlfriend for dinner tonight. I’ve booked a table at our favourite restaurant.

c. I’ve decided I change / I’m going to change / I’m changing my job.

d. A. I can’t get the computer to work. – B. Don’t worry, I help / I’ll help / I’m helping you.

e. Look out! You’ll hit / You’re hitting / You’re going to hit your head, if you’re not careful.

f. A. Jane, I think that’s your mobile ringing. – B. I’m sorry. I’m going to switch / I’m switching / I’ll switch it off.

g. A. What are you doing / are you going to do / will you do tonight? – B. I don’t know. I’m going / I’ll go / I might go to the cinema or to a disco.

3. Complete the sentences with the verb in either the future perfect or the future continuous.

a. By the end of the year, they ______________ at least a million records. (sell)

b. In the autumn they ______________ their new album, which will be finished in January. (record)

c. This time tomorrow I ______________ on the beach in the sun. (lie)

d. By the end of the week she ______________ if she wants to have the operation or not. (decide)

e. After you’ve spent six months in London, I’m sure you ______________ English fluently. (speak)

f. At 9 o’clock tomorrow my boyfriend ______________ to Rome on business. (travel)

g. My GP said I ______________ my illness by the end of the month. (get over)

h. The DJ ______________ fifty songs by the time his programme finishes. (play)

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen to two people debating the following topic: ‘We worry too much about protecting wild animals and not enough about protecting people’. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

The wildlife journalist…

a. says TV documentaries don’t influence people at all. ___

b. thinks these documentaries don’t tell the whole story. ___

c. says that Gorillas in the Mist is about a woman who was killed by gorillas. ___

d. says that the woman conservationist was helping the animals and the people. ___

e. thinks we must solve local people’s problems first. ___

The biologist…

a. says an ecosystem only involves the relationship between animals and plants. ___

b. gives two reasons for the destruction of our ecosystems. ___

c. doesn’t think it is a serious problem when a species becomes extinct. ___

d. Says that animals becoming extinct will cause world starvation. ___

e. agrees with the journalist about how to save the environment. ___

VOCABULARY: SCIENCE AND COMPUTERS 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Complete the chart.

Abstract noun Personal noun Adjective

Genetics geneticist genetic

Science ________ ________

Physics ________ ________

Chemistry ________ ________

Biology ________ ________

Engineering ________

Research ________

2. Write one noun from the list for each verb.

a CD-ROM data a document a file/folder information from the Internet

a key/button a picture/photo a program software your password

download ________

edit ________

enter ________

insert ________

load ________

open ________

press ________

print ________

run ________

save ________

scan ________

search (for) ________

WRITING: EMAIL 30 min. (3rd session)

From: Sara

To: Andy

Subject: Hi from Canada

Hi Andy

I’m writing this email from Canada. The weather is really cold at the moment but I really like it here because the people are ________. We’re driving around the country and we’re stopping in different places.

We’ve just arrived here in Vancouver. In the last few days we’ve driven ________ beautiful forests and we’ve seen some fantastic lakes. So far I’ve really enjoyed the food and we haven’t had any ________ experiences.

Tonight we’re staying in a small ________ near the city of Vancouver. Tomorrow we’re going to leave the car here and we’re going to travel by ________ through the Rocky Mountains. It should be fun.

I hope you’re well, Andy. I’ll write again soon.

Sara

Tips for writing an email:

Follow the rules for an informal letter but…

a. don’t put your address or the date.

b. you can begin with Hi + name, or simply Hi / Hello.

Exercises:

1. Complete the email guessing the missing words.

2. Write an email to a friend about a tour in your country or another country.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about science and computers.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about science and computers.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Circle the correct verb form(s) in these sentences. (Sometimes two are possible.)

a. Computer scientists predict that the new virus is going to affect / is affecting / will affect at least two million PCs in the next two days.

b. I may meet / I’m meeting / I’ll meet my girlfriend for dinner tonight. I’ve booked a table at our favourite restaurant.

c. I’ve decided I change / I’m going to change / I’m changing my job.

d. A. I can’t get the computer to work. – B. Don’t worry, I help / I’ll help / I’m helping you.

e. Look out! You’ll hit / You’re hitting / You’re going to hit your head, if you’re not careful.

f. A. Jane, I think that’s your mobile ringing. – B. I’m sorry. I’m going to switch / I’m switching / I’ll switch it off.

g. A. What are you doing / are you going to do / will you do tonight? – B. I don’t know. I’m going / I’ll go / I might go to the cinema or to a disco.

Vocabulary (2 points):

Complete the chart.

Abstract noun Personal noun Adjective

Genetics geneticist genetic

Science ________ ________

Physics ________ ________

Chemistry ________ ________

Biology ________ ________

Engineering ________

Research ________

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

What are the arguments for and against vegetarianism?

Writing (2 points):

What are the arguments for and against trying out cosmetics on animals?

Tapescript of the dictation:

The experiment has provoked discussion in the Press yet again of whether or not we have the right to use animals, particularly monkeys, for scientific experiments. The monkeys will each have eight electrodes implanted in their brains, wires buried in their leg muscles and thermometers placed inside their stomachs. They will, in addition, be kept completely immobile for months on end.

DIDACTIC UNIT 4

The more, the merrier.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about people and behaviour.

– To learn to write a description within the global focus of the term on describing and asking.

– To learn to describe and ask in the comparative, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Comparatives, so/such, adj. -ed/ing

– Vocabulary: People and behaviour

– Phonetics: Silent letters

– Writing: Description

– Communication: Describing and asking

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about people and behaviour.

– To be able to use the comparative in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on silent letters.

– To be able to write a description correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Home alone

Tony Evans, 50, head of Portsmouth Grammar School, talks about the problem of neglected children in middle class families.

We tend to think of neglected children as being exclusively from poor families. There have always been ‘problem families’, and there always will be. But today, ignored, unhappy children are now as common among affluent, intelligent and educated families as among families with poorer backgrounds.

Part of this neglect is caused by pressures of work. Parents of the professional classes work far longer hours than they used to. Today, both partners in a marriage want careers. But more than that, partners are becoming more selfish, believing that other people can take care of their children’s upbringing.

Twenty years ago, it was almost unheard of for a child to be alone at home. Every pupil, rich or poor, would return at the end of the day to their family, where a meal would be waiting to be eaten round the family table. The family would probably discuss things at that table. And that’s where a child learns most – about how to live in a family and society.

But we know that today the majority will not return to a sit-down meal round a table with all the family. ‘Grazing’, the food grabbed at random from the fridge, eaten on knees in front of the TV, has replaced the structured, sit-down meal.

We can’t even be sure that a child goes home to anyone at all. A surprising number of pupils have to cope by themselves. Parents go away on holiday, skiing, or to the sun and enjoy themselves. They leave their children at home alone to look after themselves.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. According to the text, are these statements true or false? Give reasons for your answers.

a. Tony Evans is middle-aged.

b. Neglected children are almost always from poor families.

c. Middle class parents have less time with their families than in the past.

d. Children can learn most about living in society from the television.

e. Most families no longer eat together at a table and discuss things.

f. Some parents leave their children on their own.

2. Explain the meaning of these words and expressions as they are used in the text.

a. affluent (line 8)

b. careers (line 14)

3. Find words and expressions in the text that mean the same as the expressions below.

a. social origins

b. without any conscious choice

PRONUNCIATION: SILENT LETTERS 10 min. (1st session)

Many English words have ‘silent’ letters (knight – the k is silent) or ‘silent’ syllables (comfortable – the or is not pronounced). Your dictionary will give you the right pronunciation, and it’s worth making a special effort to learn how to say these tricky words correctly.

When two consonants come one after the other they are often pronounced separately, but sometimes one consonant is ‘silent’, i.e. not pronounced. Use your instinct to identify ‘silent’ letters or check in your dictionary. Memorize “irregular” words.

Exercises:

1. Try saying these frequently mispronounced words.

foreign marriage cupboard answer building

should island half suit vegetable

sword guitar science parliament interesting

2. Check their pronunciation and practise saying them.

a. /’forәn/

b. /’mæridz/

c. /’kΛbәd/

d. /’a:nsә/

e. /’bildiŋ/

f. /fud/

g. /’ailәnd/

h. /ha:f/

i. /su:t/

j. /’vedςtәbl/

k. /sС:d/

l. /gi’ta:/

m. /’saiәns/

n. /’pa:lәmәnt/

o. /’intrәstiŋ/

p.

3. Cross out the silent letter out of the two possibilities.


c. psychologist

d. designer

e. dumb

f. castle

g. aisle

h. talk

i. sign

j. listen

k. island

l. walk

m. scientific

n. knee


SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. Describe one of your relatives.

b. Describe a typical Sunday in your family.

c. Describe the sitting-room in your house.

GRAMMAR: COMPARATIVES, SO/SUCH, -ED/-ING ADJECTIVES 30 min. (2nd session)

Adjective order:

The official order of adjectives is the following:

Opinion + size + qualities + age + shape + colour + nationality + material

Lovely big warm new round pink Spanish silk

Adjectives in -ed/-ing:

– Adjectives in -ed express the way you feel: I was bored.

– Adjectives in -ing express the cause of your feeling: The film was boring.

Grades of the adjective:

The adjective goes before the noun in English. Apart from the positive, there are two grades of the adjective: comparative and superlative.

Comparative:

Superiority:

– Short adjective: ___er than

o CVCCer: bigger than

o y > ier: happier than

– Long adjective: more _____ than

Equality:

as _____ as

Inferiority:

less _____ than

Superlative:

Superiority: the ___est

Inferiority: the most _____

Irregular adjectives:

Good – better than – the best

Bad – worse than – the worst

Far – further – the furthest

Intensifying comparative: the… the…

The faster I speak, the more mistakes I make.

The sooner you tell me, the better.

So, such:

so + adjective: It is so interesting that I loved it.

such a /an + adjective + noun:

o It was such an interesting film that I loved it.

o It was such a boring film that I hated it.

o They were such boring films that I hated them.

Exercises:

1. Circle the correct answer about adjectives and comparatives.

a. I like the dress red / the red dress best.

b. Sue’s wearing a skirt very old-fashioned / a very old-fashioned skirt.

c. My dress is looser / more loose than yours.

d. The trousers don’t fit you as well than / as well as the jeans.

e. These gloves are too tight / too tights.

f. A tracksuit is the more comfortable / most comfortable thing to wear at weekends.

g. Those jeans aren’t enough big / big enough for you.

h. That’s one of the most pretty / the prettiest hats I’ve ever seen.

i. She’s wearing the same jacket as / than you.

j. His new film is more boring / boringer than his last one.

2. Right (√) or wrong (χ)? Correct the wrong phrases with the correct order of adjectives.

a. There was an awful old comedy on TV last night.

b. I heard some classical beautiful guitar music last night on the radio.

c. My granny likes wearing traditional wool skirts in the winter.

d. I threw away those grey hideous trousers of yours last week.

e. I always go to that restaurant because of the good-looking young waiter.

f. We rented an old big country cottage for our holiday last year.

g. My brother is going to buy some suede blue shoes for his birthday.

h. We’re going to get a big new monitor for the computer.

3. Rewrite the sentences. Use the… the… and comparative adjectives.

a. If a coat is good quality, it’ll last a long time.

The better quality a coat is, the longer it will last.

b. If a mountain is high, it’s risky to climb.

The _____________________

c. If your lifestyle is healthy you’ll live a long time.

The _____________________

d. If you speak fast, it’s difficult to understand you.

The _____________________

e. If you work hard, I’ll pay you more.

The _____________________

f. If a school is big, it’s impersonal.

The _____________________

4. Circle the correct answer: so / such.

a. That company is so / such successful it’s going to become the market leader.

b. I’m tired because I’ve had so / such a busy day.

c. I won’t forget your birthday because you’ve reminded me so / such many times.

d. My sister’s so / such lazy – she doesn’t help in the house at all.

e. My in-laws are so / such nice people – I get on really well with them.

f. We would have gone to that school if the fees hadn’t been so / such high.

g. I love your living room. It’s so / such cosy!

h. My house is always in so / such a mess after the weekend.

i. The silk shirt was so / such a bargain!

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen to three people talking about incidents they remember from their childhood or teens. Choose an adjective from the list to describe how each person felt.

amazed embarrassed excited depressed

disappointed confused frightened shocked

1 ________

2 ________

3 ________

4 ________

2. Listen again and try to remember as much as you can:

a. age

b. the occasion and background of the story

c. what happened

d. what happened in the end

e. how the person felt

VOCABULARY: PEOPLE AND BEHAVIOUR 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word that follows.

a. The two men were accused of robbery with ________. Violent

b. Please don’t tell lies. It is very ________. Honest

c. I can’t stand our little brother. He’s really ________. Annoy

d. Paul is a good employee, and is very ________. Conscience

e. Mary never stops chatting! She is a very ________ person. Talk

f. I was very touched by her ________ in helping me. Kind

g. We asked for directions but people were rather ________. Help

h. Jane gets into trouble at school. She’s not very ________. Obey

i. David was given a medal for ________. Brave

j. I didn’t like the local people. There were very ________. Friend

k. Please don’t shout! It’s rather ________. Polite

l. Maria takes great ________ in her work. Proud

2. Decide if the personality adjectives apply more to men or women and form the opposite by adding a negative prefix.

ambitious bossy communicative considerate faithful honest

imaginative jealous logical mature organized patient

possessive reasonable responsible selfish sensitive sociable tidy vain

Un- Im- In- Ir- Il- Dis-

uncooperative impolite insecure irregular ilegal disloyal

WRITING: DESCRIPTION 30 min. (3rd session)

Write about a member of your family

photo

(1) Janet, my elder sister, is 21. (2) She does not look like me because she has blue eyes and fair hair, while my eyes are brown and I am dark-haired. (3) She has a lovely fresh complexion and a beautiful mouth, with full lips, but she is short-sighted, so she wears contact lenses. (4) She is quite tall and has a beautiful, slim figure. (5) She is very smart and looks really attractive when she dresses up to go out with her boyfriend.

(6) Janet is studying languages at the university and in summer she works for a travel agency. She can speak French and Spanish and now she is learning modern Greek. (7) She always goes abroad for her holidays. (8) Janet loves being with a crowd of people and when she goes abroad she talks to the local people and makes friends easily. She loves going to parties and eating out. (9) She is good at games but never takes them seriously so when we play tennis I always win because she doesn’t care if she wins or loses.

(10) Janet is very witty and amusing and she always cheers me up when I am depressed because she has a wonderful sense of humour. (11) I think her only fault is that she is restless and easily gets bored. She is an intelligent, hard-working person but she doesn’t get good marks at university because she doesn’t study enough. (12) I admire her because she is so bright and energetic but I think it is a good thing that her boyfriend is a calm, tolerant man and when she is impatient with him, he just laughs and then she laughs, too.

Tips for writing a description:

(1) Name/relation/age

(2) Eyes/hair/face

(3) Special features

(4) Figure

(5) Dress

(6) Study/work

(7) Hobbies

(8) Interests

(9) Games

(10) Personality/qualities

(11) Faults

(12) Conclusion

*Be careful with the order of the adjectives: quantifiers – article – ordinal numbers – cardinal numbers – general judgement – measurement – age or temperature – shape – colour – verb participle form – material – origin or nationality – noun in apposition.

Exercise:

1. Write a composition of about 200-250 words describing someone you know well, a member of the family or a friend.

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about people and behaviour.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about people and behaviour.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Circle the correct answer about adjectives and comparatives.

a. I like the dress red / the red dress best.

b. Sue’s wearing a skirt very old-fashioned / a very old-fashioned skirt.

c. My dress is looser / more loose than yours.

d. The trousers don’t fit you as well than / as well as the jeans.

e. These gloves are too tight / too tights.

f. A tracksuit is the more comfortable / most comfortable thing to wear at weekends.

g. Those jeans aren’t enough big / big enough for you.

h. That’s one of the most pretty / the prettiest hats I’ve ever seen.

i. She’s wearing the same jacket as / than you.

j. His new film is more boring / boringer than his last one.

Vocabulary (2 points):

Decide if the personality adjectives apply more to men or women and form the opposite by adding a negative prefix.

ambitious bossy communicative considerate faithful honest

imaginative jealous logical mature organized patient

possessive reasonable responsible selfish sensitive sociable tidy vain

Un- Im- In- Ir- Il- Dis-

uncooperative impolite insecure irregular ilegal disloyal

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

Describe a typical Sunday in your family.

Writing (2 points):

Describe one of your relatives.

Tapescript of the dictation:

Part of this neglect is caused by pressures of work. Parents of the professional classes work far longer hours than they used to. Today, both partners in a marriage want careers. But more than that, partners are becoming more selfish, believing that other people can take care of their children’s upbringing. Twenty years ago, it was almost unheard of for a child to be alone at home. Every pupil, rich or poor, would return at the end of the day to their family, where a meal would be waiting to be eaten round the family table.


DIDACTIC UNIT 5

How much money do you spend?

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about food and cooking.

– To learn to write a recipe within the global focus of the term on describing and asking.

– To learn to describe and ask with articles, adverbs and quantifiers, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: articles, adverbs and quantifiers (some, any, much, many, a lot of)

– Vocabulary: Food and cooking

– Phonetics: Schwa ә and silent r

– Writing: Recipe

– Communication: Describing and asking

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about food and cooking.

– To be able to use the articles, adverbs and quantifiers in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on schwa ә and silent r.

– To be able to write a recipe correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

The junk food time-bomb that threatens a new generation

Walking up and down the supermarket, Debbie Oakley, 46-year-old mother of three looked rather tired as she examined the range of cereals. Her six-year-old son, Matthew, insisted on buying two packets with free toys inside, and into the trolley they went. The sugary contents didn’t seem to matter. ‘If you’ve got young children and you work, you can’t read the small print because you haven’t got time’, confessed Oakley.

She admits that her 16- and 18-year-old children still avoid the vegetables on their plate and fears that her youngest is going the same way. ‘Matthew picks things with lots of sugar and it’s hard to get them to eat something without a sugar content’.

Child obesity caused by poor nutrition and lack of exercise is creating a health crisis in Britain. There has never been, in the space of a single generation, such a dramatic deterioration in public health. Junk food and inactivity will inevitably leave thousands of Britons with disabilities, diabetes and heart disease. For the first time in a hundred years life expectancy will actually go down.

Obesity now affects 21 per cent of men and 23 per cent of women in the UK. A further 46 per cent of men and 33 per cent of women are overweight. At least two thirds of our population needs to lose weight, the exact opposite of a century ago when the same proportion of Britons were underweight through lack of nutrition. As for children, one in 9 is now classified as obese.

If the increase continues, thousands of children will develop diabetes within the next 15 years. Up to 10 million people could be diabetic by 2020. A century ago, the disease was almost unknown, but now it affects three million people – double the number of a decade ago.

Faced with this problem, the Government is considering a series of policy measures:

reducing fat, salt and sugar in children’s food

restricting the amount of advertising of sweets, crisps and snack foods during children’s programmes

increasing the number of hours of sport in schools each week

encouraging families to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day

(Edited from The Guardian)

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Describe the health crises affecting Britain at the moment, its causes and effects. Use your own words.

2. Are the following statements true or false? Justify your answers with reference to the text.

a. It was little Matthew who decided what cereals to buy.

b. Of the three children Mrs Oakley has, only Matthew prefers sugary food.

c. British children growing up today will have a shorter life than their parents.

d. A hundred years ago two thirds of the British people were undernourished.

e. The number of people affected by diabetes has doubled in the last century.

3. Find in the text the words and expressions whose meanings match the following definitions:

a. A large wheeled metal basket (lines 1 to 10)

b. Keep away or refrain from (lines 1 to 10)

c. Food with little nutritional value (lines 10 to 20)

d. Above a normal or desirable weight (lines 10 to 20)

e. A small quantity of food or a light meal (lines 20 to 29)

PRONUNCIATION: SCHWA ә AND SILENT r 10 min. (1st session)

The sound /ә/ is the most common vowel sound in English. Making it correctly will improve your pronunciation enormously. It can be produced by almost any vowel or combination of vowels (cooker, picture, mirror, sofa), and as you can see especially before a final ‘r’ which is silent; the ‘r’ is only pronounced in initial position (river) or between vowels (arrange).

Check in the dictionary if a new word has the sound /ә/. It often comes before or after a stressed syllable, so getting the stress right will help you to get the sound right.

Exercises:

1. Look at the phonetics of some words with sound /ә/. Write the words. Practise saying them.

a. /’kΛbәd/__________

b. /’aiәn/__________

c. /ә’reindς/__________

d. /ә’piәrәns/__________

e. /’kΛmftәbl/__________

f. /’terәs/__________

g. /’modәn/__________

h. /’әuvә/__________

i. /’fæƒnәbl/__________

j. /’leđә/ __________

2. Underline the stress in these words. Circle the sound /ә/.

furniture attractive radiator catalogue effort pavement balcony dishwasher fireplace luxurious

3. Pronounce the ‘r’ where necessary in the following words:

river room drawers drive chair over cleaner

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. If you believe obesity to be a problem, what in your opinion should be done about it?

b. Imagine you suffer from obesity (or any other food related disorder). Explain your situation and ask for advice.

GRAMMAR: QUANTIFIERS AND ARTICLES 30 min. (2nd session)

Articles:

A/an: when we are talking about something for the first time

o A cheetah is a very fast animal that lives in Africa.

The: when we are talking about something already known, something unique or about a specific group.

o The rich usually live in detached houses.

Ø: we don’t use article when we are talking about something in general.

o Cheetahs are very fast animals.

Adverb:

– Adverbs of manner usually go after the main verb: He drives badly.

– Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb: I usually go.

– Adverbs of time usually go at the end of the sentence: He arrived last night.

– Adverbs of degree usually go before an adjective or adverb: He’s very late.

– Sentence adverbs usually go at the beginning of the sentence: Unfortunately, …

– Other adverbs go before the main verb: She can probably come.

Quantifiers:

Some/any:

o We use some in affirmative sentences: I have some books.

o We use any in negative and interrogative sentences: I haven’t got any books.

o We also use some in offers and requests: Would you like some coffee?

All/every + (body/thing/where):

o We use all + plural or uncountable nouns to say the total quantity: All of the guests in the party were happy / All men like cars.

o We use every + singular to say all of a group: Every guest was happy.

o Compounds: everybody, everything, everywhere + singular verb

No/none/any:

o Negative + any: There aren’t any oranges.

o No + noun + positive verb: There are no oranges.

o None without a noun (or with of + noun) + positive verb: None of the students came to class.

Much/many/a lot of:

o Much + uncountable nouns, in negative sentences: much money.

o Many + countable nouns, in negative sentences: many books.

o A lot of + countable and uncountable nouns, in affirmative sentences.

(A) few / (a) little:

o (a) few + countable nouns: a few books.

o (a) little + uncountable nouns: a little money.

o We use ‘a’ when we are being optimistic, and not when we are being pessimistic.

Exercises:

1. Right (√) or wrong (χ)? Correct the wrong words.

a. Does somebody know the right answer?

b. I don’t know nobody who goes skiing.

c. I’m going to take something for my stomach-ache.

d. We haven’t got anything in common.

e. Would you like something to eat?

f. Anyone knows if King Arthur really existed.

g. When you cook the dinner I can never find something afterwards.

h. A. Is there anything to eat? – B. No, anything.

2. Circle the correct answer.

a. Has all / everybody arrived?

b. All the / All students in my class are girls.

c. I don’t agree that all / all the women want to look fashionable.

d. All / Everything has changed in my hometown.

e. I go climbing all days / every day in the holidays.

f. Everybody / All would like to have a good memory.

g. I’ve been working hard all day / every day today and I’m exhausted!

h. We go away every / all August.

3. Complete the sentences with no, none or any.

a. I’m going to Argentina with three friends, but _____ of us speaks Spanish.

b. There’s _____ time to talk now. I’m too busy.

c. A. Can I have a sandwich? – B. Sorry. There isn’t _____ bread.

d. A. How many of the books have you read? – B. _____. Sorry, I didn’t have time.

e. _____ of these keys open the door to the garage.

f. A. How old do you think Sarah’s husband is? – B. I’ve _____ idea! 30? 40?

g. A. Are there _____ messages for me? – B. Yes. There’s a fax for you.

h. _____ tourists come to this town. There’s nothing to see!

4. Write the where necessary.

____ last week I went shopping after ____ work to buy a new dress for a party I’m going to ____ next month. I love ____ parties. They’re a good excuse for buying ____ new clothes and there’s always ____ possibility that you might meet ____ interesting people. On ____ evening of ____ party, I took a long time getting dressed. I felt great wearing my new dress. But as soon as I walked through ____ door I saw a girl wearing exactly ____ same dress. I nearly cried. When I told my boyfriend he said it was ____ most ridiculous thing he’d ever heard. Of course, ____ men don’t understand about ____ clothes, because they never notice what ____ people are wearing anyway.

5. Put the adverbs in brackets into each sentence in the right place:

a. We’re going to be late. (unfortunately, extremely)

b. I get up when the alarm clock goes off. (usually, immediately)

c. His French is excellent and he can speak German. (also, fluently)

d. Although he likes films he goes to the cinema. (very much, rarely)

e. I crashed my new car. (yesterday, almost)

f. I’m sorry. I can’t come on Friday, not Saturday. (terribly, only)

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen to four people talking about friends or family who are ‘addicted’ to something. Who are they talking about? What are they addicted to?

2. Listen again and complete the sentences with a colloquial word or phrase. How would you say the same in more formal English?

a. At the ________ of the ________ she isn’t bothering anyone else.

b. They just think she’s a bit ________.

c. He’s a real ________.

d. He just keeps accepting ________ and ________ of work.

e. I want him to spend more time with me and the ________.

f. …instead of just ________ and watching ________ ________ with us…

g. She just stays there for ________.

h. I’ve got this ________ who’s absolutely obsessed with football.

i. It really ________ her ________.

VOCABULARY: FOOD AND COOKING 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a. Waiter, could you bring me my account/bill/addition please?

b. It’s a very popular restaurant, we should apply for/book/keep a table.

c. If you’re hungry, why not ask for a large dish/plate/portion.

d. Please help/serve/wait yourself to salads from the salad bar.

e. Waiter, can I see the catalogue/directory/menu, please?

f. This fish is not what I called/commanded/ordered.

g. This dish/plate/serving is a specialty of our restaurant.

h. Have you tried the crude/raw/undercooked fish at the new Japanese?

i. Paul never eats meat, he’s a vegetable/vegetarian/vegetation.

j. Have you decided what to have for your main course/food/helping?

2. Choose words from the list to complete the labels for the illustrations.

frying pan saucepan casserole jar kettle jug

bowl tin opener mug food mixer

WRITING: RECIPE 30 min. (3rd session)

A plain omelette for one person

Ingredients:

2 eggs

Salt

Pepper

Butter

Water

Instructions:

Break two eggs into a basin. Beat them a little till the whites and yolks have mixed properly. Add a little salt and pepper and a tablespoonful of water and mix these in.

Melt a little fresh butter in an omelette pan, remembering that too much butter will make the omelette greasy. When the butter is hot, pour in the eggs, stir twice in the centre and cook the eggs over a low heat. Loosen the edges with a knife to allow the uncooked part to run underneath.

When the under surface is firm, double the omelette over with a knife so that it is crescent-shaped and allow any loose egg to cook. Lift it out on to a hot dish covered with paper with the side that was nearest the pan on top. Serve it at once.

A well-cooked omelette should have a firm surface but be creamy inside.

Tips for writing a recipe:

a. Include at the beginning the ingredients with the specific quantities.

b. Write the different steps in different paragraphs, using imperatives as they are instructions.

c. Include any advice if it is necessary.

Exercise:

5. Write the recipe of your favourite dish or of a typical Spanish dish, including the ingredients.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about food and cooking.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about food and cooking.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Right (√) or wrong (χ)? Correct the wrong words.

a. Does somebody know the right answer?

b. I don’t know nobody who goes skiing.

c. I’m going to take something for my stomach-ache.

d. We haven’t got anything in common.

e. Would you like something to eat?

f. Anyone knows if King Arthur really existed.

g. When you cook the dinner I can never find something afterwards.

h. A. Is there anything to eat? – B. No, anything.

Vocabulary (2 points):

Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a. Waiter, could you bring me my account/bill/addition please?

b. It’s a very popular restaurant, we should apply for/book/keep a table.

c. If you’re hungry, why not ask for a large dish/plate/portion.

d. Please help/serve/wait yourself to salads from the salad bar.

e. Waiter, can I see the catalogue/directory/menu, please?

f. This fish is not what I called/commanded/ordered.

g. This dish/plate/serving is a specialty of our restaurant.

h. Have you tried the crude/raw/undercooked fish at the new Japanese?

i. Paul never eats meat, he’s a vegetable/vegetarian/vegetation.

j. Have you decided what to have for your main course/food/helping?

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

If you believe obesity to be a problem, what in your opinion should be done about it?

Writing (2 points):

Imagine you suffer from obesity (or any other food related disorder). Explain your situation and ask for advice.

Tapescript of the dictation:

Child obesity caused by poor nutrition and lack of exercise is creating a health crisis in Britain. There has never been, in the space of a single generation, such a dramatic deterioration in public health. Junk food and inactivity will inevitably leave thousands of Britons with disabilities, diabetes and heart disease. For the first time in a hundred years life expectancy will actually go down.

DIDACTIC UNIT 6

Anyone but you.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn the difference in vocabulary between American and British English.

– To learn to write a composition within the global focus of the term on describing and asking.

– To learn to describe and ask with connectors of addition, contrast and cause, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Connectors of addition, contrast and cause

– Vocabulary: American/British English

– Phonetics: Sentence stress

– Writing: Composition

– Communication: Describing and asking

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk differentiating between American and British English, being appropriate to the communicative situation.

– To be able to use the connectors of addition, contrast and cause in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on sentence stress.

– To be able to write a composition correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Do-it-yourself

There is now a fashionable practice in Britain and elsewhere, which has developed into an absorbing hobby for some people and which goes by the informal name of ‘do-it-yourself’. This means that the owner or occupier of a house undertakes the decorating, maintenance and repair jobs himself, instead of handing them over to skilled craftsmen. Of course, there have always been men with ability and tireless enthusiasm who took delight in such work, but until fairly recently most people found if much simple to employ someone else to do it for them.

It was, however, women and not men who first attempted such jobs. During the Second World War, when only a few elderly workmen were available, since all the able-bodied were fighting or doing some vital war work, women tried their hands at repairs when these became necessary, and often discovered a natural aptitude which they did not know they possessed.

After the war, when prices for everything rose, ‘do-it-yourself’ was an economic necessity for most families. Publishers were quick to meet the demand for information and brought out new magazines devoted to all the skills needed in the house, such as carpentry, decorating, electrical repairs. Technical colleges started evening classes for those who wished to be taught the correct method of working. The radio also helped with weekly talks run by a panel of experts giving useful advice and pointing out how to avoid mistakes.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Why did women do the repairing jobs in the house for themselves during the war?

2. Why have publishers brought out new magazines dealing with the different branches of building and decorating.

3. Answer the following questions about vocabulary:

a. Explain in your own words the meaning of:

i. tireless enthusiasm (line 7)

ii. available (line 12)

iii. panel of experts (line 22)

b. Give another word or phrase of similar meaning to the following expressions or write sentences to illustrate their meaning:

i. took delight (line 7)

ii. rose (line 16)

iii. advice (line 23)

PRONUNCIATION: SENTENCE STRESS 10 min. (1st session)

The ‘music’ of English comes mainly from the rhythm and intonation of a sentence. The rhythm is determined by which words are stressed or unstressed. We usually stress ‘information’ words, e.g. nouns, verbs, adjectives, or phrases which give important information.

Exercises:

1. Identify and underline in the following sentences the information words and say their category (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) and, after that, try to say the sentences stressing mainly these words.

a. Can you take these pills for me, please?

b. This girl is from Brazil and her dog is Japanese.

c. The day that I pass the exam l will be very happy.

d. Where is the girl who was standing right here?

2. Practice this ‘music’ reading a paragraph of a text.

Even if we have an extremely healthy diet and lifestyle, the human body is programmed to wear out a maximum of about 120 years, and usually less. We all have a biological clock inside us which determines the moment when our organs cease to function properly. This is because our cells have stopped renewing themselves and our body can no longer repair itself. This is also the moment when we are more likely to suffer from diseases of old age such as arthritis and Alzheimer’s. However, rapid advances in DNA research are beginning to throw light on the secrets of the ageing process. By the end of this century we could literally have the power of life over death.

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. The qualities needed to make a success of ‘do-it-yourself’.

b. The pleasures of making and repairing things.

GRAMMAR: CONNECTORS: ADDITION, CONTRAST AND CAUSE 30 min. (2nd session)

To give cohesion to a text we must use sentence linkers or connectors. There are several types of connectors according to their communicative function:

Addition:

– Coordinating conjunction: and

Example: High level positions are stressful, and can be harmful too.

– Conjunctive adverbs: in addition, additionally, furthermore, moreover, also

Example: High level positions are stressful; furthermore, they can be harmful.

– Correlative conjunctions: not only…but also

Example: Not only are high level positions stressful, but they also can be harmful.

– Prepositional phrases: in addition to, along with, as well as

Example: Along with being stressful, high level positions can also be harmful.

Contrast:

– Coordinating conjunction: but

Example: High level positions are stressful, but professionals can learn.

– Subordinating conjunctions: although, despite the fact that, whereas, while

Example: Despite the fact that high level positions are stressful, professionals can learn.

– Conjunctive adverbs: however, nevertheless, in contrast, on the other hand

Example: High level positions are stressful; nevertheless, professionals can learn.

– Prepositional phrases: despite, in spite of (+ noun/verb in -ing), unlike

Example: in spite of the stressful nature of high level positions, professionals can learn.

Cause:

– Coordinating conjunctions: for (cause), so (effect)

Example: Professionals can be impatient, for their positions are stressful.

– Subordinating conjunctions: because, since

Example: Since their positions are stressful, professionals can be impatient.

– Conjunctive adverbs: therefore, as a result, consequently

Example: Their positions are stressful; therefore, professionals can be impatient.

– Prepositions: because of, due to, as a result of

Example: Due to the stressful nature of their positions, professionals can be impatient.

Exercises:

1. Circle the correct answer.

a. He bought a new car although / in spite of the fact that he couldn’t afford it.

b. The traffic in the city centre has improved a lot. Despite / On the other hand there is still a lot of vandalism.

c. I’m much better now at using the new software. However / Also, I still often have to look at the manual.

d. Although / In spite there were several witnesses, they couldn’t identify the burglar.

e. I passed the exam even though / on the other hand I had missed a lot of classes.

f. Despite / Although leaving home an hour earlier, I still arrived late for the meeting.

g. They had a great time on holiday in spite of / even though the weather was terrible.

h. I definitely recommend visiting Barcelona. The city itself is wonderful, and you can also / as well easily get to the beach.

2. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.

a. Tina was still hungry despite eating a huge breakfast. (although)

______________________________

b. He’d been smoking for years, but he didn’t find it hard to give up. (even though)

______________________________

c. Our flight was delayed. It still arrived on time. (despite)

______________________________

d. The jokes were awful, but everybody enjoyed his speech. (despite)

______________________________

e. I switched on the computer although there was a bad thunderstorm. (in spite of)

______________________________

f. He pretended to recognize her, in spite of not being able to remember who she was. (although)

______________________________

g. I gave my daughter a bike for her birthday, but she wanted a Barbie doll. (though)

______________________________

h. The reviews were very bad, but the film was still a box-office success. (in spite of)

______________________________

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen once to a radio interview with Rolf Hausser and answer these questions.

a. What happened to O&M Hausser in the end?

b. What is Rolf Hausser most angry about?

c. What does the interviewer say about the two dolls?

2. Listen again and number the events in the order they happened. Use the time connectors to help you.

a. The company started to make a loss. ___

b. He went to Nuremberg. ___

c. Rolf Hausser didn’t know that Barbie existed. _1_

d. The Haussers sold the patent of Lili. ___

e. He found out who manufactured Barbie. ___

f. Kurt Hausser persuaded his brother not to take Mattel to court. ___

g. Rolf Hausser saw some Barbies in a shop. ___

h. Rolf Hausser went bankrupt. ___

VOCABULARY: BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH 15 min. (3rd session)

1. British and American English have some differences in vocabulary (lift, British / elevator American) and spelling (favourite, British / favorite American). Underline eight examples of American vocabulary and three of American spelling in the following e-mail. Rewrite them in British English.

From: kay.bonner

To: s.agnes

It’s great news that you’ve decided to come and see us! Why not come in the fall, as the colors are beautiful then, and the kids will be back at high school – their summer vacation ends in the middle of September, thank goodness! Of course you can stay with us; our apartment isn’t very big but I’m sure it’ll be fine. Do you want to borrow our car? It would be a good way of traveling around, as gas is very cheap, and we live just off the main highway, which is quite far from the center. Of course you could use the subway, but some people say it’s dangerous.

So write as soon as you know your plans. I’ll find out the schedules for English classes but I’m sure it’ll be OK to go in the morning.

Hope to hear from you soon.

Love, Kay

WRITING: COMPOSITION 30 min. (3rd session)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being famous?

Nowadays the magazines that sell the most are ones like ‘Hello’ magazine, which tell us about the lives of famous people. It seems that everybody is interested in them, and that most people would really like to be famous. ________, there are advantages and disadvantages.

________ of being famous is probably the lifestyle it gives you. Most famous people are very rich and can afford big houses with swimming pools, and expensive cars. ________, they spend a lot of time travelling, visiting different countries, and staying in luxurious hotels.

________, there are disadvantages. Every time famous people go out they are surrounded by fans and photographers. ________, it is very difficult for them to have a normal private life. ________, they often can’t spend much time at home as they have to travel so much, ________ if they are making a film or doing a concert tour.

________, I think it is probably easier to be happy if you are not famous, in spite of all the money famous people have.

Tips for writing a ‘for and against’ composition:

a. Write four paragraphs: an introduction (e.g. what the situation is now in your country), points for, points against, and a conclusion (your opinion, e.g. if there are more points for than against).

b. Use a formal style (i.e. don’t use contractions or very colloquial expressions).

c. List the points for and against before you start writing (two points for and two points against is probably enough).

d. Back up your points with reasons or examples.

e. Learn and use connectors to link your ideas.

Exercises:

1. Complete the composition with the connectors from the list.

As a result Besides However for example In conclusion

The main advantage On the other hand What is more

2. Write a ‘for and against’ composition, choosing from one of these titles:

a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the public health service in your country?

b. What are the advantages and disadvantages of alternative medicine?

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about American and British vocabulary.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about American and British vocabulary.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Circle the correct answer.

a. He bought a new car although / in spite of the fact that he couldn’t afford it.

b. The traffic in the city centre has improved a lot. Despite / On the other hand there is still a lot of vandalism.

c. I’m much better now at using the new software. However / Also, I still often have to look at the manual.

d. Although / In spite there were several witnesses, they couldn’t identify the burglar.

e. I passed the exam even though / on the other hand I had missed a lot of classes.

f. Despite / Although leaving home an hour earlier, I still arrived late for the meeting.

g. They had a great time on holiday in spite of / even though the weather was terrible.

h. I definitely recommend visiting Barcelona. The city itself is wonderful, and you can also / as well easily get to the beach.

Vocabulary (2 points):

British and American English have some differences in vocabulary (lift, British / elevator American) and spelling (favourite, British / favorite American). Underline eight examples of American vocabulary and three of American spelling in the following e-mail. Rewrite them in British English.

From: kay.bonner

To: s.agnes

It’s great news that you’ve decided to come and see us! Why not come in the fall, as the colors are beautiful then, and the kids will be back at high school – their summer vacation ends in the middle of September, thank goodness! Of course you can stay with us; our apartment isn’t very big but I’m sure it’ll be fine. Do you want to borrow our car? It would be a good way of traveling around, as gas is very cheap, and we live just off the main highway, which is quite far from the center. Of course you could use the subway, but some people say it’s dangerous.

So write as soon as you know your plans. I’ll find out the schedules for English classes but I’m sure it’ll be OK to go in the morning.

Hope to hear from you soon.

Love, Kay

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

The qualities needed to make a success of ‘do-it-yourself’.

Writing (2 points):

The pleasures of making and repairing things.

Tapescript of the dictation:

It was, however, women and not men who first attempted such jobs. During the Second World War, when only a few elderly workmen were available, since all the able-bodied were fighting or doing some vital war work, women tried their hands at repairs when these became necessary, and often discovered a natural aptitude which they did not know they possessed.

DIDACTIC UNIT 7

You shouldn’t have smoked.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about crime and punishment.

– To learn to write a story within the global focus of the term on arguing.

– To learn to argue with modal verbs, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Modal verbs (must, have to, should, can, could, may, might)

– Vocabulary: Crime and punishment

– Phonetics: Compound stress

– Writing: Story

– Communication: Arguing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about crime and punishment.

– To be able to use the modal verbs in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on compound stress.

– To be able to write a story correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

The birthday party

Alice could say he’d beaten her and made her life hell for twenty years… but no, that wouldn’t do. They wouldn’t believe her. ‘Can’t understand it’, friends and neighbours would say. ‘The perfect couple. Never had a voice raised in anger.

She looked across at her husband who was sprawled in his easy chair. He looked as though he were asleep. There was no blood. She had never imagined the bullet would go right through.

She had made good use of the four hours since then. Bank. Travel agency. Another bank. One life had been lost, but there was no point in wasting hers as well. She would have a good start and a whole lot of money. They would never find her.

‘If only’, she said aloud, ‘he’d remembered my birthday’. Twenty years with a man who never shouted, never screamed, never gambled, never got drunk – it had been so frustrating. And then along comes her birthday, and… nothing. Last year, at least there had been a party.

Only a woman can understand the strain of reaching forty, she thought to herself as she went through to the kitchen. It was time to go.

There was a knock at the back door just as she reached for her bag. Bother! She could ignore it, but it might seem strange. She spoken firmly, “Who is it?”

‘It’s me, Madge’, said a timid voice. No problem, thought Alice, opening up. It would be easy to rid of her.

‘Happy Birthday!’ said Madge. And then they all burst in – Bill, Wendy, Jane, Andy, Jim from the office… kisses, parcels, bottles, paper hats.

‘Surprise! Did you think we had forgotten your birthday?’

‘Life begins at forty!’ shouted someone.

‘Where on earth is Jack?’ asked someone else.

Before she could stop them, they all went into the lounge. ‘Hey come on, Jack!’ shouted Madge. ‘Wake up…!’

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer these questions in your own words.

a. At the beginning what excuses does Alice consider giving for her murder?

b. What has she done since the murder?

c. Why did she kill her husband?

d. Why does she open the door to Madge?

2. Explain the meaning of these words as they are used in the text.

a. sprawled (line 7)

b. ignore (line 25)

PRONUNCIATION: COMPOUND STRESS 10 min. (1st session)

Compound nouns are almost always stressed on the first word.

Exercise:

1. Answer with a compound noun; look at the dictionary if it is necessary. Stress them correctly.

a. Where do you park your car?

b. What can you normally hear at the end of the news?

c. What kind of company was O&M Hausser?

d. Who is Bart Simpson?

e. What kinds of things do top models wear?

f. Where can you see wild animals that are not in zoos?

g. What do you call a person that steals cars?

h. What are Nike, Nescafé, and Ariel?

i. Where does the postman put your mail?

j. Where should you throw sweet papers?

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

b. Continue the story of The birthday party. What happened after Jack’s body was discovered?

c. ‘Women can and should do exactly the same jobs as men’. Do you agree?

d. ‘Beauty contests should be banned’. What do you think?

GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS 30 min. (2nd session)

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs with a specific meaning. There are several types of modal verbs according to their communicative function.

Ability:

Can: I can play the guitar.

Be able to: When I was a child I was able to play the guitar (past and future of can)

Could: I could play the guitar.

Obligation:

Must: I must study harder for the next exam.

Have to: You have to study harder for the next exam.

Mustn’t / don’t have to:

o You mustn’t study (prohibition)

o You don’t have to study (it is not necessary)

Had to: When I was younger I had to study less. (past of must and had to)

Advice:

Should: You should study harder for your next exam.

Ought to: You ought to study harder for your next exam.

Deduction:

May: It may rain tomorrow. (possible action)

Might: It might rain tomorrow. (possible action)

Must: It must be eight o’clock pm. because there is almost no light (sure action)

Can’t: It can’t be eight o’clock pm. because there is plenty of light (sure action)

Past deduction:

May have: It may have rained.

Might have: It might have rained.

Must have: It must have rained because the floor is wet.

Can’t have: It can’t have rained because the floor is dry.

Exercises:

1. Match the sentences.

a. The computer’s not working.

b. John smokes 40 cigarettes a day.

c. This film must be good.

d. This bill can’t be right.

e. Your trip sounds wonderful.

f. He can’t be serious.

g. It’s a bit late to phone.

h. I wonder why he hasn’t arrived.

i. Do you think that’s Martha?

k. You must be really looking forward to it.

l. He must be pulling my leg.

m. They might be in bed.

n. He might be trying to park.

o. It can’t be switched on.

p. It might be. It looks like her.

q. It can’t be very good for him.

r. We hardly ordered anything.

s. It’s got some great actors in it.

2. Write a sentence for each situation with must have, might have or can’t have, and the phrase in brackets.

a. I can’t find my homework. (leave it at home or on the bus)

I might have left it at home or on the bus.

b. Jane has a new car. (sell the old one)

She ______________________________

c. Sarah’s nose looks completely different. (have plastic surgery)

She ______________________________

d. James is back at work. (illness be very serious)

His ______________________________

e. Those football fans look very happy. (win the match)

Their team ______________________________

f. There was a fire in the school last night. (drop a cigarette or a match)

Someone ______________________________

g. Why aren’t they here yet? They know the way very well. (get lost)

They ______________________________

h. He didn’t answer the telephone. (be in the garden or in the shower)

He ______________________________

i. It’s only 9 p.m. (go to bed already)

She ______________________________

j. I didn’t make any mistakes. (pass the exam)

I ______________________________

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen once to an interview with a private detective. In general is he positive or negative about his job?

2. Listen again and take notes under these headings:

a. What his job involves

b. The worst aspects of his job

c. Tricks he uses

d. Advice for people who are deceiving others

VOCABULARY: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Match the definitions a-i to the crimes below.

a. Force a person to give you money, usually by threatening to expose a secret

b. Take somebody away and demand money for their return

c. Take control of a plane, usually for political reasons

d. Damage public property for no reason

e. Pay money to somebody (e.g. an official) for a favour

f. Take something (e.g. a car) without the owner’s permission

g. Kill a famous or important person for money or for political reasons

h. Kill a person intentionally

i. Use violent action for political purposes

Crime Criminal Specific verb Definition

Assassination assassin assassinate

Blackmail blackmailer blackmail

Bribery – bribe

Hijacking hijacker hijack

Kidnapping kidnapper kidnap

Murder murderer murder

Terrorism terrorist –

Theft thief steal

Vandalism vandal vandalize

2. Complete the text with words from the list

arrested caught fine innocent jury

offence trial verdict

In the UK today if you are ________ doing something illegal, you may be ________ by the police and later charged with the crime. If it is a minor ________, you may have to pay a ________ or do community service. If the crime is serious you will be taken to court where you will have a ________. Your case will be tried by a judge and a ________ consisting of twelve people. When the lawyers have presented all the evidence and witnesses have been called, the jury will decide if you are ________ or guilty. If the ________ is guilty you will be sentenced and go to prison.

WRITING: STORY 30 min. (3rd session)

Bernie woke up suddenly and looked at the bedside clock…

Bernie woke up suddenly and looked at the bedside clock. It was 3.00 in the morning. ‘Much too early’, he said to himself, and went ________ back to sleep. He was a light sleeper when he knew he had to get up early, and today he was feeling ________ responsible as he had the plane tickets for the football team, and they had agreed to meet at the airport at 7.00.

Suddenly Bernie woke up again and looked at the bedside clock. It still said 3.00. He was just falling asleep when he noticed that sunlight was coming in through the curtains. ‘Oh no!’ Bernie thought, ________ looking for his watch on the table. It said 7.05.

________ the phone started to ring. ‘What’s happened to you’ a voice asked. ‘It’s 7.05. The plane leaves at 7.45’. ‘I’ll be there as soon as I can’, Bernie promised. ________, he put on the first clothes he could find, picked up his bag, which ________ he’d packed the night before, ________ took his car keys and ran out of the door…

Bernie woke up ________ and looked at the bedside clock. It was 3.00 in the morning. A nurse came over. ‘Where am I?’ said Bernie. ‘You’re in hospital – you’ve had a car accident… driving too fast, I’m afraid. Were you trying to catch a plane?’

Tips for writing a story:

1. Always invent your plot before you start writing (A man wakes up late and drives to the airport. He has an accident and wakes up in hospital.).

2. Divide your story into three parts:

a. Opening part: set the scene, describe the situation.

b. Body of the story: two or more paragraphs describing the events in the story.

c. Closing paragraph: how the story ends, what happens to the characters.

3. Try to use a mixture of narrative tenses (past simple, past continuous, past perfect).

4. Use time expressions to link events (when, at that moment, suddenly, etc.).

5. Use adverbs (desperately, fortunately) to make your story more vivid.

Exercises:

1. Make the story more vivid using expressions from the list to fill the gaps.

2. Write a story which begins ‘When Chris saw the car parked outside his/her house, his/her heart started beating faster…’.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about crime and punishment.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about crime and punishment.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Write a sentence for each situation with must have, might have or can’t have, and the phrase in brackets.

a. I can’t find my homework. (leave it at home or on the bus)

I might have left it at home or on the bus.

b. Jane has a new car. (sell the old one)

She ______________________________

c. Sarah’s nose looks completely different. (have plastic surgery)

She ______________________________

d. James is back at work. (illness be very serious)

His ______________________________

e. Those football fans look very happy. (win the match)

Their team ______________________________

f. There was a fire in the school last night. (drop a cigarette or a match)

Someone ______________________________

g. Why aren’t they here yet? They know the way very well. (get lost)

They ______________________________

h. He didn’t answer the telephone. (be in the garden or in the shower)

He ______________________________

i. It’s only 9 p.m. (go to bed already)

She ______________________________

j. I didn’t make any mistakes. (pass the exam)

I ______________________________

Vocabulary (2 points):

Match the definitions a-i to the crimes below.

a. Force a person to give you money, usually by threatening to expose a secret

b. Take somebody away and demand money for their return

c. Take control of a plane, usually for political reasons

d. Damage public property for no reason

e. Pay money to somebody (e.g. an official) for a favour

f. Take something (e.g. a car) without the owner’s permission

g. Kill a famous or important person for money or for political reasons

h. Kill a person intentionally

i. Use violent action for political purposes

Crime:

Assassination ___

Blackmail ___

Bribery ___

Hijacking ___

Kidnapping ___

Murder ___

Terrorism ___

Theft ___

Vandalism___

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

‘Beauty contests should be banned’. What do you think?

Writing (2 points):

‘Women can and should do exactly the same jobs as men’. Do you agree?

Tapescript of the dictation:

She looked across at her husband who was sprawled in his easy chair. He looked as though he were asleep. There was no blood. She had never imagined the bullet would go right through. She had made good use of the four hours since then. Bank. Travel agency. Another bank. One life had been lost, but there was no point in wasting hers as well. She would have a good start and a whole lot of money. They would never find her.


DIDACTIC UNIT 8

Do you know the man who has been promoted?

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about work and employment.

– To learn to write an informal letter within the global focus of the term on arguing.

– To learn to argue with relative clauses, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Relative clauses (who, which, that, whose, when, where, whom; defining and non-defining)

– Vocabulary: Work and employment

– Phonetics: Plosives and aspiration with p, t, k, h

– Writing: Informal letter

– Communication: Arguing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about work and employment.

– To be able to use the relative clauses in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on plosives and aspiration with p, t, k, h.

– To be able to write an informal letter correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

A professional job

Jackson looked at his watch. What had happened? Kramer had told him to be ready outside at exactly 3.30. It was now 3.42.

Jackson always hated this part – the waiting. Kramer’s instructions had been absolutely clear. Jackson was to start shooting as soon as the doors opened. ‘They’ll come out first. You can’t miss them’. Kramer had said. And he’d promised to pay him well – if he did a good job. ‘They tell me you’re the best. Now prove it!’ Those had been Kramer’s last words.

He glanced at his car. ‘I’ll have to get away quickly. Just get the job done and then disappear’. That was the way he liked to work.

He noticed that he was trembling. Normally he had a steady hand. What was wrong? Was he losing his nerve? Or was it just the icy wind? He needed a cigarette, but he couldn’t take the risk. The doors could open any second and he had to be ready.

There were a lot of people around. ‘I must be careful’, he thought, worried. ‘If anyone gets in the way, it could mean disaster’.

Suddenly the doors opened. The time had come at last! Jackson stood in exactly the right position, facing the doors. And then he saw them. He slowly closed his left eye, made sure that the couple were in his sights and started shooting.

Two minutes later, Kramer’s daughter and her new husband walked arm-in-arm down the steps of the church to the waiting car. And Jackson had got it all on video. As usual, he had done a good, professional job.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer these questions in your own words.

a. What is Jackson’s job? Who is Kramer?

b. Where is Jackson waiting? Why is he waiting there?

c. How does Jackson feel before he starts work?

2. Explain the meaning of these words as they are used in the text.

a. shooting (line 6)

b. prove (line 10)

c. steady (line 16)

d. steps (line 29)

PRONUNCIATION: PLOSIVES AND ASPIRATION: p, t, k, h 10 min. (1st session)

The consonants p, t, k are plosives in English, and the h is normally aspirated although sometimes is not pronounced.

Exercises:

1. Pronounce the following words paying attention to these consonants:

a. cat

b. pen

c. horse

d. keys

e. hundred

f. house

g. car

h. hospital

i. pilot

j. hour

2. Pronounce the following text paying attention to these consonant sounds:

Jackson always hated this part – the waiting. Kramer’s instructions had been absolutely clear. Jackson was to start shooting as soon as the doors opened. ‘They’ll come out first. You can’t miss them’. Kramer had said. And he’d promised to pay him well – if he did a good job. ‘They tell me you’re the best. Now prove it!’ Those had been Kramer’s last words. He glanced at his car. ‘I’ll have to get away quickly. Just get the job done and then disappear’. That was the way he liked to work.

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. You are George Kramer. Say thanks to Mr Jackson for videoing your daughter’s wedding and doing such a good job. Say that a cheque for £500 is enclosed.

b. You would like a summer job as an air courier. Apply for the job to Ms Jane Reynolds. Mention your skills and your educational level and say why you are suitable for the job.

c. You bought a computer yesterday but it doesn’t work. Complain to the managing director of the company which makes the computer, Mrs Helen Martin, and ask for your money back.

GRAMMAR: RELATIVE CLAUSES 30 min. (2nd session)

Relative clauses are adjectival clauses that give more information about the precedent noun or antecedent. These clauses start with a relative pronoun:

Who: The person who is next to you is Peter.

Which:

o The book which is next to yours is mine.

o This is the pen with which his masterpiece was written. (with preposition)

o Peter hasn’t arrived yet, which is very worrying. (referring to the whole previous clause)

That: The book that is next to yours is mine. (it can substitute who/which, except in non-defining relative clauses)

Whose: The person whose car is red is Peter.

Whom:

o The man whom you met was a colleague of mine.

o The person to whom I gave the book is Peter. (with preposition)

o Dave is the person with whom I get on best. (with preposition)

Where: The place where I was born is London.

When: The day when I arrived here is Monday.

What: What I want to do is running.

Who, which and that can be omitted when they function as the object of the relative clause, but they can’t when they function as the subject of the relative clause:

– Object: The book (which) I bought last week is ‘Twilight’.

– Subject: The book which is on the table is ‘Twilight’.

Relative clauses can be defining or non-defining, according to whether they give essential or extra information.

Defining relative clauses (essential information):

The book which is on the table is ‘Twilight’.

Non-defining relative clauses (extra information):

The book on the table, which is very interesting, is ‘Twilight’.

Exercise:

1. Rewrite the first part of the sentences to make them informal.

a. The safari on which I went was thrilling.

The safari which I went on was thrilling.

b. The man to whom those puppies belong has promised to give me one.

______________________________

c. The flat into which they moved had been unoccupied for years.

______________________________

d. The organization for which my sister works meets every Monday.

______________________________

e. One of the women with whom I work has just bought a terraced house.

______________________________

f. A subject in which I am really interested is telepathy.

______________________________

g. The hospital in which she was born is not longer there.

______________________________

h. His wife, whom he had trusted completely, betrayed him to the police.

______________________________

2. Complete the sentences with what, which or whom.

_____ I really wanted was a relaxing holiday, so I decided on a week in the Caribbean. The travel agent with _____ I booked promised that the trip would be wonderful. However, he did not give me my ticket straight away, _____ surprised me. Then when I finally received it, I saw that the plane in _____ I would be travelling was a charter flight, not the scheduled flight I’d been promised. I began to get suspicious. When I arrived at the airport on the day of the trip, the tour representative told me that my name wasn’t on his list. At first I couldn’t believe _____ he was saying, but when I finally realized that it was true, I got really angry. In the end, he managed to find me another holiday, for _____ I had to pay extra. When I got there the people with _____ I was sharing the apartment turned out to be very nice, and the beach was wonderful, _____ was a relief. However, _____ I would like to know is whether the travel agent actually knew he had overbooked the trip, or if it was just a genuine mistake.

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen once to Simon and Joe talking about their experience.

a. How did Joe survive?

b. Did Joe blame Simon for cutting the rope?

c. Do you think Simon blamed himself?

2. Now listen again to Joe and Simon. Write true (T) or false (F). Give reasons.

a. When Simon saw Joe coming towards him, he felt shocked. ___

b. When Joe broke his leg, Simon didn’t think that the situation was desperate. ___

c. Joe thinks most people would have left him on the mountain. ___

d. When Joe fell, he landed at the bottom of the crevasse. ___

e. It took Joe several hours to get to base camp. ___

f. Joe was worried that Simon would have already left. ___

g. Some people have accused Simon of being selfish. ___

h. Simon worries about what other people think. ___

i. Joe thinks that Simon made the wrong decision. ___

j. Their friendship was affected by the incident. ___

VOCABULARY: WORK AND EMPLOYMENT 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Match each job from the list with the sentence which best refers to the job.

accountant chef estate agent plumber architect

dustman firefighter postman/woman carpenter electrician

optician vet

a. Yesterday I had to give an injection to an injured bull. ___vet___

b. I get rather tired of picking up rubbish all day. ________

c. I can help you sell your house. ________

d. I can make new doors for the wardrobe if you like. ________

e. Make sure that the fish is fresh by looking at the eyes. ________

f. I’ll come round and replace all the pipes in the kitchen. ________

g. Unless you keep the receipts you’ll pay more tax. ________

h. The cause was either an electrical fault or a cigarette. ________

i. Always turn the power off at the mains before you start. ________

j. You can see the balcony on the plan for the second floor. ________

k. It’s a registered parcel. Can you sign here? ________

l. This pair also protects your eyes form the sun. ________

2. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. The words can be used more than once.

business job living work

a. Jack makes his ________ working as a journalist.

b. She has just left to go to ________, I’m afraid.

c. They worked very hard and now have their own ________.

d. There are still nearly two million people without ________.

e. The cost of ________ has risen greatly over recent years.

f. Stop interfering! This is none of your ________.

g. Lucy has a very good ________ in an international company.

h. I can’t come out tonight. I’ve got too much ________ to do.

i. Some ________-men came and dug a hole in the road outside.

j. An early ________ by Picasso was sold for £2,000,000.

WRITING: INFORMAL LETTER 30 min. (3rd session)

24 Arlington Road

London NW8

28 October 2008

Dear ________,

Thanks for your letter. ________ but I’ve been really busy. ________ I’ve managed to persuade my parents to let me spend a year in your country learning the language! So I hope we’ll be able to see each other when I’m there. I’ve applied for courses in several cities, so I don’t know exactly where I’ll be going yet.

I must admit that now I am starting to get a bit worried. Now that it’s definite that I’m going, I’ve started to wonder how I’ll adapt to living there. How easy do you think it is for someone from England to live in your country? As you know, I’ve only been there on holiday and I’m sure living there is going to be very different. What kind of problems do you think I might have? I’d really like your advice.

________ as I have to go and pick up my little brother from school. ________, or if it’s easier, send me an email. My email address is Renton@tel.uk. ________ I hope they’re both well.

_______

Best wishes

Andy

P.S. Here’s a photo of me and my family at a big family lunch we had recently.

Tips for writing an informal letter:

a. Put your address and the date in the top right-hand corner (but not your name).

b. Begin with Dear (Jane), not Hello. Use a comma (,), not a colon (:).

c. Use informal language (contractions, colloquial expressions, etc.).

d. Always divide your letter into at least three paragraphs.

e. Show that you are going to end the letter by using a “finishing” sentence (Well, that’s all for now). Put Best wishes / Regards or (Lots of) love if it’s a close friend.

f. If you have forgotten something add it at the end with PS.

Exercises:

1. Guess the missing phrases of the informal letter given.

2. Write a reply to the model letter, which is from a British friend you met last summer.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about work and employment.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about work and employment.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Rewrite the first part of the sentences to make them informal.

a. The safari on which I went was thrilling.

The safari which I went on was thrilling.

b. The man to whom those puppies belong has promised to give me one.

______________________________

c. The flat into which they moved had been unoccupied for years.

______________________________

d. The organization for which my sister works meets every Monday.

______________________________

e. One of the women with whom I work has just bought a terraced house.

______________________________

f. A subject in which I am really interested is telepathy.

______________________________

g. The hospital in which she was born is not longer there.

______________________________

h. His wife, whom he had trusted completely, betrayed him to the police.

______________________________

Vocabulary (2 points):

Match each job from the list with the sentence which best refers to the job.

accountant chef estate agent plumber architect

dustman firefighter postman/woman carpenter electrician

optician vet

a. Yesterday I had to give an injection to an injured bull. ___vet___

b. I get rather tired of picking up rubbish all day. ________

c. I can help you sell your house. ________

d. I can make new doors for the wardrobe if you like. ________

e. Make sure that the fish is fresh by looking at the eyes. ________

f. I’ll come round and replace all the pipes in the kitchen. ________

g. Unless you keep the receipts you’ll pay more tax. ________

h. The cause was either an electrical fault or a cigarette. ________

i. Always turn the power off at the mains before you start. ________

j. You can see the balcony on the plan for the second floor. ________

k. It’s a registered parcel. Can you sign here? ________

l. This pair also protects your eyes form the sun. ________

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

You are George Kramer. Say thanks to Mr Jackson for videoing your daughter’s wedding and doing such a good job. Say that a cheque for £500 is enclosed.

Writing (2 points):

You bought a computer yesterday but it doesn’t work. Complain to the managing director of the company which makes the computer, Mrs Helen Martin, and ask for your money back.

Tapescript of the dictation:

There were a lot of people around. ‘I must be careful’, he thought, worried. ‘If anyone gets in the way, it could mean disaster’. Suddenly the doors opened. The time had come at last! Jackson stood in exactly the right position, facing the doors. And then he saw them. He slowly closed his left eye, made sure that the couple were in his sights and started shooting.

DIDACTIC UNIT 9

I wish I were ill.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about health and medicine.

– To learn to write a letter of complaint within the global focus of the term on arguing.

– To learn to argue with the conditional sentences, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Conditionals: 0, 1, 2, 3 and wish + inversion with negatives

– Vocabulary: Health and medicine

– Phonetics: Letter y

– Writing: Letter of complaint

– Communication: Arguing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about health and medicine.

– To be able to use the conditional sentences in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on letter y.

– To be able to write a letter of complaint correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

The power of love

Recent research has suggested new and more persuasive ways of getting teenagers to give up smoking. Whilst the number of adults who smoke in Britain has been decreasing rapidly, smoking among British teenagers has been increasing.

Advertisements which stress how dangerous smoking is for your health don’t seem to have any effect. Teenagers, it seems, cannot imagine that they will ever become middle-aged, let alone old or seriously ill. They simply aren’t impressed with the bald statistic that one in two teenagers who continue to smoke as adults will die as a result of their habit. Out of every 1000 young adults who smoke now, one will be murdered, six will die in road accidents and 500 will die of smoking.

But now researchers have discovered that the person most likely to persuade a teenager to quit smoking is his girlfriend or her boyfriend. A survey of 1000 teenagers found that four out of ten smokers would try to give up if their partner wanted them to. Among the girls surveyed, several mentioned that they didn’t like the smell of tobacco in their boyfriend’s clothes and boys repeatedly said that they didn’t like kissing a girl who smoked. Of the total, 19 per cent even said that they would split up with their partners if they didn’t stop smoking. Compare this to the tiny four per cent who said they would give up if someone they admired, like a sports star or rock singer, recommended them to.

Professor Gordon McVie, head of the Cancer Research Campaign, commented, ‘A lot of adults believe that young smokers would listen to the advice of famous people or celebrities on quitting. But, in fact, it seems that love is the key to getting youngsters to stop smoking’.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer these questions in your own words.

a. Which British people are smoking more and which are smoking less?

b. What do anti-smoking advertisements emphasize?

c. Why don’t teenagers worry much about their health?

d. How effective is advice from famous people about smoking?

2. Write a short summary of the text.

3. Explain the meaning of these words as they are used in the text.

a. researchers (line 16)

b. quitting (line 34)

PRONUNCIATION: LETTER Y 10 min. (1st session)

The letter ‘y’:

a. At the beginning of a word, it is pronounced /j/ (young)

b. At the end of a word:

ii.It is pronounced /i/ in most words of two or more syllables (healthy)

iii. It is pronounced /ai/ in one-syllable words (my), words where stress in on the last syllable (reply), and words ending in -ify (clarify).

c. In the middle of a word:

iv. It is pronounced /i/ when it is between consonants (symptom)

v. It is pronounced /ai/ when the y is followed by a consonant + e (tyre) or with words (of Greek origin) beginning with psy- or hyp- (psychiatrist) except hypnotist and hypocrite.

Exercise:

1. Pronounce the ‘y’ following sentences:

a. I’m a hypochondriac. I always worry about my symptoms.

b. The shy psychoanalyst analysed his own personality.

c. Study and classify vocabulary. Try to recycle it.

d. The physicist does yoga in the biology laboratory.

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. Tell the story of someone’s attempt to give up smoking.

b. Invent a story which begins in the following way. Louise and Jake got on very well when they first met. There was just one problem…

c. What are the arguments for and against banning smoking in public places?

GRAMMAR: CONDITIONALS: 0, 1, 2, 3 AND WISH 30 min. (2nd session)

Conditional sentences serve to express more or less probability of an action. There are several types according to the grade of probability as well as the communicative function:

Zero conditional: always true (universal truths)

If + present simple / present simple: If you heat the water, it boils.

First conditional: probable action (advice)

If + present simple / will: If you study, you will pass.

In the negative: You won’t pass unless you study.

Second conditional: improbable action (wish, telling off)

If + past simple / would: If you studied, you would pass.

Third conditional: impossible action (past regret)

If + past perfect / would have: If you had studied, you would have passed.

Mixed types: regret with present consequences

If + past perfect / would: If you had studied, you would be a doctor now.

When talking about conditions, it is also important to mention the verb wish, which has several constructions according to their communicative function:

Wish + past simple (normal wish): I wish I were rich.

Wish + past perfect (regret): I wish I had studied harder for the exam.

Wish + would (complaint): I wish you would stop making so much noise.

Exercises:

1. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form.

a. If my GP can’t cure my headaches, I ________ (try) acupuncture.

b. If your leg was broken, it ________ (hurt) more.

c. I’m sure you would feel better if you ________ (not smoke) so much.

d. If you ________ (not stop) eating so much salt, you’ll get high blood pressure.

e. This hospital would be better if there ________ (be) more beds.

f. If your ankle ________ (not be) swollen, it’s probably not serious.

g. The ambulance ________ (be) here in a minute if there’s no traffic.

h. If my grandfather ________ (not be) so fit, he wouldn’t be able to live on his own.

i. She ________ (not go) to work unless she feels better.

2. Match the sentence halves.

a. I’d have gone climbing…

b. If my keys had been on the table, …

c. We would have heard her…

d. They’d never have seen her…

e. If I’d known it was stolen, …

f. If she were more friendly, …

g. If you’d reminded me, …

h. If it was dangerous, …

i. if she had shouted.

j. I would talk to her more.

k. I wouldn’t have bought it.

l. if the weather hadn’t been so bad.

m. if she hadn’t been wearing a red scarf.

n. I wouldn’t do it.

o. I wouldn’t have forgotten.

p. I would have noticed them.

3. Circle the correct answer.

a. I wish I didn’t buy / hadn’t bought that dress. It looks awful!

b. I wish my doctor gave / would give me something for my allergy. I can’t stop sneezing!

c. I wish I lived / would live somewhere where it didn’t rain so much!

d. Jack wishes he hadn’t argued / didn’t argue with his girlfriend. Now she wants to cancel the wedding.

e. I wish the government did / would do something about the increasing crime rate. It’s not safe to go out at night these days.

f. Now he wishes he didn’t tell / hadn’t told that joke. Nobody understood it.

g. I wish I didn’t have to / wouldn’t have to work so hard. I need more free time.

h. They wish they bought / had bought the house when they had the opportunity. Now it’s too late.

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. You are going to hear four people giving their opinion about alternative medicine. Listen once and just try to indentify the speakers. Write 1-4 in the boxes.

a. ___

b. ___

c. ___

d. ___

2. Listen to each speaker again. Is he/she for or against alternative medicine? What is his/her main argument?

a. __________

b. __________

c. __________

d. __________

VOCABULARY: HEALTH AND MEDICINE 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Explain if the following expressions are the same or different and join with the correct picture.

a. What’s the matter with Kate? / What’s wrong with Kate?

b. I feel ill. / I don’t feel well.

c. He feels sick. / He’s being sick.

d. I feel sick. / I feel dizzy.

e. His ankle is swollen. / His ankle is broken.

f. His knee hurts. / His knee aches.

g. She’s in hospital. / She’s at the hospital.

2. Write M (minor) or S (serious) and explain what they are.

a. Be pregnant

b. Have an allergy

c. Have a chronic illness

d. Have flu

e. Have a heart attack

f. Have a stroke

g. Have a virus

h. Take an overdose

3. Match the descriptions and alternative treatments.

touching/pressing the body using plants and herbs

using needles touching/pressing the bones/muscles

a. Acupuncture ________

b. Homeopathic ________

c. Massage ________

d. Osteopathy ________

WRITING: LETTER OF COMPLAINT 30 min. (3rd session)

Dear Sir/Manager,

I am writing to complain about/This is about your advertisement for the Multiplex Cinema, which is misleading in a number of ways.

Firstly, you state in the advertisement/your advert that seats cost £3.00. But you know/However, when I went to the cinema, the only seats that were available cost £10 each. I feel/reckon that it should have been made clear that only a limited number of seats cost £3, and that the others are far/loads more expensive.

Secondly/And then you say that there is free car parking. However, when I asked about this at the box office, I was told that the free car park was twenty minutes’ walk away. There is a £10 charge for using the car park next to the cinema, but your advertisement does not make this clear at all.

So all in all/Under the circumstances, I feel justified in asking for a refund. I would therefore be grateful if you could refund the extra £14 I had to spend on the tickets and the £10 charge for parking. I am enclosing/Here are the receipts for these.

I look forward to hearing/Hope to hear from you.

Yours faithfully/sincerely

DD Jones

Tips for writing a letter of complaint:

a. A letter of complaint is a formal letter, so you cannot use contractions or colloquial expressions.

b. Structure the letter in the following parts:

i. Opening: remember you are writing to the manager.

ii. Paragraph 1: explain why you are writing and give details of where you stayed and when.

iii. Paragraph 2: describe the problems you had with the facilities.

iv. Paragraph 3: describe what other problems you had.

v. Paragraph 4: suggest a course of action.

vi. Ending: finish the letter in a suitable way.

c. If you know the surname of the person you are writing to, you start the letter with ‘Dear Mr Johnson,’ and you finish with ‘Yours sincerely,’; on the other hand, if you don’t know the surname of the person you are writing to, you start the letter with ‘Dear Sir/Madam,’ and you finish with ‘Yours faithfully,’. Anyway, before the ending you should write ‘I look forward to hearing from you’.

Exercises:

1. Choose the best option from the underlined words of the given letter.

2. You have recently been on a short holiday organized by a local company, but you were not happy with some of the things that happened. Write a letter of complaint to the manager of the company.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about health and medicine.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about health and medicine.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Put the verb in brackets in the correct form.

a. If my GP can’t cure my headaches, I ________ (try) acupuncture.

b. If your leg was broken, it ________ (hurt) more.

c. I’m sure you would feel better if you ________ (not smoke) so much.

d. If you ________ (not stop) eating so much salt, you’ll get high blood pressure.

e. This hospital would be better if there ________ (be) more beds.

f. If your ankle ________ (not be) swollen, it’s probably not serious.

g. The ambulance ________ (be) here in a minute if there’s no traffic.

h. If my grandfather ________ (not be) so fit, he wouldn’t be able to live on his own.

i. She ________ (not go) to work unless she feels better.

Vocabulary (2 points):

Explain if the following expressions are the same or different and join with the correct picture.

a. What’s the matter with Kate? / What’s wrong with Kate?

b. I feel ill. / I don’t feel well.

c. He feels sick. / He’s being sick.

d. I feel sick. / I feel dizzy.

e. His ankle is swollen. / His ankle is broken.

f. His knee hurts. / His knee aches.

g. She’s in hospital. / She’s at the hospital.

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

Tell the story of someone’s attempt to give up smoking.

Writing (2 points):

What are the arguments for and against banning smoking in public places?

Tapescript of the dictation:

Recent research has suggested new and more persuasive ways of getting teenagers to give up smoking. Whilst the number of adults who smoke in Britain has been decreasing rapidly, smoking among British teenagers has been increasing. Advertisements which stress how dangerous smoking is for your health don’t seem to have any effect. Teenagers, it seems, cannot imagine that they will ever become middle-aged, let alone old or seriously ill.

DIDACTIC UNIT 10

Try it on!

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about clothes and appearance.

– To learn to write an opinion essay within the global focus of the term on arguing.

– To learn to argue with phrasal and prepositional verbs, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Phrasal and prepositional verbs

– Vocabulary: Clothes and appearance

– Phonetics: Strong/weak syllables

– Writing: Opinion essay

– Communication: Arguing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about clothes and appearance.

– To be able to use the phrasal and prepositional verbs in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on strong and weak syllables.

– To be able to write an opinion essay correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Clothes and communication

Clothes, decorations, physique, hair and facial features give a great deal of information about us. For instance, we wear clothes to keep us warm, because unlike animals we do not have a protective covering of hair. But for the purpose of communication, we dress in clothes of different colours, style and material; we wear jewellery, we use cosmetics and perfume, we grow beards; and we smoke pipes and carry walking sticks.

Strict rules govern the clothes we wear. We do not, for instance, wear football boots with a dinner-jacket, or a boiler suit to work in an insurance office. Fashionable and smart clothes are associated with good qualities, and well dressed people have been found to get more help and cooperation from complete strangers.

Rebels consider themselves to be different from other people in society, and often alter their physical appearance to show this. In the last two decades in Britain there have been a number of youth movements with distinct uniforms –among them, hippies and punks. Hippies did not just wear simple clothes but dressed in a particular style that made them instantly recognisable. The punk rock craze has taken this even further, at least in a courageous few.

People also choose particular clothes to protect their personalities. Sociable and extroverted types wear brighter colours than more introverted and reserved people. Some people wear odd combinations of clothes to express their individuality.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer the following questions in your own words as far as possible.

a. Why does the author call those following the punk craze ‘courageous’.

b. According to the text, what purposes do clothes serve?

c. Why might it be an advantage to approach strangers in a suit rather than in jeans.

d. According to the text, what do rebels use ‘uniforms’ for?

e. Why does the author think that wearing or dressing rules are strict?

PRONUNCIATION: STRONG/WEAK SYLLABLES 10 min. (1st session)

Remember the ‘music’ of English comes from its rhythm and intonation. This depends a lot on the mixture of ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ syllables in a sentence. Getting this right will make you sound more fluent.

In a word with more than one syllable there is only going to be one primary stress(‘), and it is marking the strong syllable, as the stress is given to a syllable. If the word is long, there can also be a secondary stress (,). Example: comfortable /’kΛmftәbl/, undercooked /,Λndәkukt/. As you can see in the examples, in the strong syllables there are strong vowels, whereas in the weak syllables there are weak vowels like /ә/. In a verb, the auxiliary verb is weak and the main verb is strong.

Exercise:

4. Pronounce the following questions paying attention to weak and strong syllables.

a. Where have you been fishing?

b. Have you cleaned the kitchen?

c. Do you usually smoke cigarettes?

d. What should be the arguments against it?

e. Can you look for the difference, please?

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. Do you agree with the author of the text? Do you think clothes give information about how we are?

b. Do you think wearing a specific type of clothes is important when applying for a job? Or do you think it is important to be loyal to your own style in every kind of situation?

GRAMMAR: PHRASAL AND PREPOSITIONAL VERBS 30 min. (2nd session)

Phrasal verbs:

A phrasal verb is a compound verb formed by a verb and a particle, but whose meaning is not the sum of the literal meanings of the verb and the particle.

Examples:

o Look after: take care of

o Take off: undress

o Go on: continue

There are also phrasal verbs with two particles:

o Put up with: tolerate

o Look forward to: be eager to

In phrasal verbs the particle can be placed before or after the object (the phrasal verb is separable), except when the object is a pronoun:

o I am going to take off my clothes.

o I am going to take my clothes off.

o I am going to take them off.

Prepositional verbs:

A prepositional verb is a compound verb formed by a verb and a particle, and whose meaning is the sum of the literal meanings of the verb and the particle. It is usually a specific particle that always goes with the same verb.

Examples:

o Look at

o Depend on

o Believe in

The particle always goes after the verb and before the object, so a prepositional verb is not separable.

o It depends on you.

o I am looking at you.

There are also some particles that always go with the same noun or adjective:

o Interest in (noun)

o Good at (adjective)

Exercise:

1. Replace the expressions with phrasal verb in the correct form to make the sentences more informal. Use a verb and a particle from each box.

be hurry throw wake go turn away out over down up(x2)

a. Susie left the house and shut the door. Went out

b. Oliver had to go quickly to catch the bus. ________

c. When the match finished, the spectators went home. ________

d. He put the old newspapers in the rubbish bin. ________

e. Make the television quieter, please! It’s too loud. ________

f. Peter stops sleeping at 6 o’clock every morning. ________

2. Focus on the meaning of the particles in phrasal verbs a-g. Write the correct number next to the sentence.

Up: Down: Off: On: Out:

1 increase 1 decrease 1 disconnect 1 continue 1 make disappear

2 completely 2 put on paper 2 depart 2 wear 2 to different people

3 stop completely 3 connect

a. If you keep on shouting, I’ll get angry. 1

b. The government has promised to bring down the cost of transport. ___

c. He got onto the motorbike and drove off. ___

d. It’s your birthday so you have to blow out the candles. ___

e. They’ve put up the price of cigarettes by 30%. ___

f. The factory closed down two years ago, and the workers had to find new jobs. ___

g. Make sure you don’t leave the lights on when you go out. ___

3. Complete the sentences with the suitable preposition for each verb.

a. I’m not interested ___ learning to ride.

b. Bill was worried ___ meeting Maria’s parents.

c. The thief was well known ___ stealing radios from cars.

d. Do you ever get tired ___ watching reality TV shows?

e. Anna is afraid ___ being on her own at night.

f. We got bored ___ lying on the beach all day.

g. Our old boss was very bad ___ remembering our names.

h. The police were very confident ___ catching the burglar.

4. Right (√) or wrong (χ)? Correct the wrong prepositions for each adjective.

a. I’m fed up about always having to put away my children’s clothes. ___

b. I’m very fond of guinea pigs. I’ve got two of them. ___

c. He’s mad with the music of the last decade. ___

d. My mother is tired with listening to my father complaining all the time. ___

e. She’s very interested on homeopathic medicine. ___

f. I’m hooked on that soap opera – it’s great! ___

g. She’s really keen in jogging. She does it every day. ___

h. Unfortunately my neighbour has become addicted with tranquillizers. ___

i. I was fascinated for his story – it was so interesting. ___

j. My brothers are obsessed with the Arctic Monkeys. ___

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Guess which of the two people they are talking about said the sentences below. Write PM (Princess Mary) or TL (Tito Lombardo). Try to get used to the two voices.

a. My favourite fashion period is definitely the 60s. ___

b. I think that fashion today is awful. ___

c. I once spend a fortune on a Versace coat. ___

d. I’ve never been a fashion victim. ___

e. Women simply don’t seem to care what they look like. ___

f. The only thing I have really suffered with is my hair. ___

g. I’ve always been awfully vain. ___

h. These days I’m more concerned about being healthy. ___

2. Listen again. What do they say about…?

Princess Mary:

a. women’s dresses

b. platform shoes

c. high-heeled shoes

d. her hair

Tito Lombardo:

e. today’s designers

f. what he loves about today’s fashion

g. a coat

h. wearing uncomfortable shoes

VOCABULARY: CLOTHES AND APPEARANCE 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Complete the text with a word from the list.

bargains casual discount latest fashions

department stores designer clothes in and out of fashion

mail order sales window shopping smart

Nowadays people buy clothes in many different ways, in ________, chain stores, and smaller shops, or from catalogues, either by ________ (buying by post) or on the Internet. In spite of the growth of ‘on-line shopping’, for many people, especially women, ________ (looking at things in shop windows) and buying the ________ are still enjoyable activities. Most larger stores sell a wide range of fashion, from ________ clothes (for work or formal occasions) to ________ clothes (to wear in your free time). ________ (made by well-known fashion companies) are the most expensive. Clothes are also the items whose prices are most reduced during the ________, normally after Christmas and in the summer, when you can often find ________ (things which are good value for money). Some shops offer up to a 50% ________, or even more. This is because they need to change stock rapidly, as clothes quickly go ________.

2. Put the clothes in the right section.

a blouse a cap a dress a dressing-gown gloves

a handkerchief (hanky) pyjamas a running vest sandals

a shirt a skirt slippers a sweatshirt a tie

tights a tracksuit trainers a waistcoat

Women’s fashions Menswear Footwear

Sport clothes Underwear/nightwear Accessories

WRITING: OPINION ESSAY 30 min. (3rd session)

Top sports people earn too much money nowadays

In most countries today top sports people, ________ footballers, tennis players, get enormous salaries. What they earn in a week is often more than ordinary people earn in a year. Is this really too much? ________ I don’t think so.

________, the active life of a professional sports person is relatively short – they often retire when they’re in their mid-thirties. ________, many of them don’t even play that long, as they often get injured, which means they have to retire early.

________, although their salaries are very high, they are not much higher than other successful people in the entertainment industry like pop singers, actors or TV personalities, whose professional careers can last for fifty years. Sport today is watched by millions of people, so it should be considered entertainment just like the cinema or TV.

________, I think that top sports people’s high salaries are not unfair if you compare them with people doing similar jobs.

Tips for writing an opinion essay:

a. Plan four (or five) paragraphs: an introduction (e.g. what the situation is in your country), the main reasons why you agree/disagree, and a conclusion (a summary of your opinion).

b. List your reasons (‘for’ or ‘against’) before you start writing. Two or three main reasons are enough.

c. Start paragraph 2 with your main reason (Firstly). Use a connector (besides, what is more) to add a related reason. Use Secondly and Finally to introduce other arguments in new paragraphs.

d. Back up your reasons with clear examples.

e. Use a formal style (don’t use contractions, or very colloquial expressions).

f. Learn and use the connectors in the list.

Exercises:

1. Complete the composition with a word/expression from the list:

Besides Firstly such as Personally Secondly To sum up

2. Write an opinion composition Choose one of the following questions:

a. Should animals be used in medical experiments?

b. Should hunting as a sport be made illegal?

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about clothes and appearance.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about clothes and appearance.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Replace the expressions with phrasal verb in the correct form to make the sentences more informal. Use a verb and a particle from each box.

be hurry throw wake go turn away out over down up(x2)

a. Susie left the house and shut the door. Went out

b. Oliver had to go quickly to catch the bus. ________

c. When the match finished, the spectators went home. ________

d. He put the old newspapers in the rubbish bin. ________

e. Make the television quieter, please! It’s too loud. ________

f. Peter stops sleeping at 6 o’clock every morning. ________

Vocabulary (2 points):

Put the clothes in the right section.

a blouse a cap a dress a dressing-gown gloves

a handkerchief (hanky) pyjamas a running vest sandals

a shirt a skirt slippers a sweatshirt a tie

tights a tracksuit trainers a waistcoat

Women’s fashions Menswear Footwear

Sport clothes Underwear/nightwear Accessories

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

Do you think clothes give information about how we are?

Writing (2 points):

Do you think wearing a specific type of clothes is important when applying for a job? Or do you think it is important to be loyal to your own style in every kind of situation?

Tapescript of the dictation:

Hippies did not just wear simple clothes but dressed in a particular style that made them instantly recognisable. The punk rock craze has taken this even further, at least in a courageous few. People also choose particular clothes to protect their personalities. Sociable and extroverted types wear brighter colours than more introverted and reserved people. Some people wear odd combinations of clothes to express their individuality.


DIDACTIC UNIT 11

Sue has been accused, hasn’t she?

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about money.

– To learn to write a speech within the global focus of the term on arguing.

– To learn to argue with question tags, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Question tags

– Vocabulary: Money

– Phonetics: Question intonation

– Writing: Speech

– Communication: Arguing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about money.

– To be able to use the question tags in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on question intonation.

– To be able to write a speech correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

How much are you worth?

One of the most difficult questions to answer is how much a job is worth. We naturally expect that a doctor’s salary will be higher than a bus conductor’s. But the question becomes much more difficult to answer when we compare, say, a miner with an engineer, or an unskilled man working on an oil-rig in the North Sea with a teacher in a secondary school. What the doctor, the engineer and the teacher have in common is that they have devoted several years of their lives to studying in order to obtain the necessary qualifications for their professions. We feel instinctively that these skills and these years, when they were studying instead of earning money, should be rewarded. At the same time we recognise that the work of the miner and the oil-rig labourer is both hard and dangerous, and they must be highly paid for the risks they take.

However, you can argue that a man who does a job which brings him personal satisfaction is already receiving part of his reward in the form of the so-called ‘psychic wage’, and that it is the man with the boring, repetitive job who needs more money to make up for the soul-destroying monotony of his work. It is significant that those jobs which are traditionally regarded as ‘vocations’ –nursing, teaching and the Church, for example– continue to be poorly paid, while others, such as those in the world of sport or entertainment, carry financial rewards out of all proportion to their social worth.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer these questions about the passage using your own words as far as possible:

a. Why is it difficult to compare a doctor with a miner?

b. Are some sort of jobs paid as well as one would expect?

2. Are these statements about the passage true or false? Justify your answer.

a. You can compare an engineer with a teacher because they both earn the same kind of salary.

b. The argument of the ‘psychic wage’ is used to explain why people who do socially important work are not always well paid.

3. Vocabulary:

a. Explain in your own words the meaning of the following expressions:

i. ‘such as’ (line 16)

ii. ‘out of all proportion’ (line 17)

b. Find in the text the word which means:

i. not requiring any special training

ii. a quality that fits a person to perform a particular job

PRONUNCIATION: QUESTION INTONATION 10 min. (1st session)

Using the right intonation helps you to sound more friendly and interested when you asks questions.

There are two types of intonation according to the two types of questions that there are in English:

a. Wh- questions: rising intonation (): What is your name?

b. Yes/No questions: falling intonation (): Do you like chocolate?

In the questions tags, when you check information that you’re certain about, the intonation in the question tag doesn’t go up. But if you show surprise it will go up.

a. You don’t like chocolate (-), do you (+)? ()

b. You like chocolate (+), don’t you (-)? ()

As you can see from the example, if the sentence is positive the question tag will be negative, and if the sentence is negative the question tag will be positive, and always using the auxiliary verb.

Exercises:

1. Decide which intonation is the appropriate for each question and practise saying it.

a. What are the main factors involved?

b. Do you think the problem is very serious?

c. Will it be solved soon?

d. When will benefits increase again?

2. Complete the sentence with a question tag and decide the appropriate intonation.

a. This is the train to London, __________?

b. You aren’t coming, __________?

c. You’ve been to London before, __________?

d. You didn’t come to class yesterday, __________?

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

b. Same job, same salary.

c. Everybody should be paid the same, regardless of the job.

GRAMMAR: QUESTION TAGS 30 min. (2nd session)

Question tags are interrogative expressions used at the end of sentences to check if information is correct. A question tag is formed by an auxiliary verb and a pronoun, referring back to the previous sentence:

– The auxiliary you use depends on the tense of the verb in the sentence:

o You’re from UK, aren’t you? (present simple, with verb to be)

o You live in London, don’t you? (present simple)

o You wrote a book, didn’t you? (past simple)

o You have lived here for two years, haven’t you? (present perfect)

o You will accept the job, won’t you? (future with will)

– If the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative, and the other way round:

o You’re from UK, aren’t you?

o You don’t smoke, do you?

We often use short answers (Yes/No + auxiliary verb) when we answer yes/no questions or tags questions.

Have you been here before? – Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.

You don’t smoke, do you? – Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

Exercises:

1. Circle the correct answer.

a. You’re John, aren’t you / don’t you?

b. This is our bus, is it / isn’t it?

c. She hasn’t left yet, hasn’t she / has she?

d. They travel a lot, don’t they / aren’t they?

e. He doesn’t like meat, does he / doesn’t he?

f. You won’t be late, will you / won’t you?

g. We’re seeing them on Friday, don’t we / aren’t we?

h. They met at our party, didn’t they / don’t they?

2. Write the question tags.

a. You don’t smoke, ______ ______?

b. Antonio’s from Italy, ______ ______?

c. Your sister studied here last year, ______ ______?

d. He’ll be here tomorrow, ______ ______?

e. They didn’t come to class yesterday, ______ ______?

f. You were born in Athens, ______ ______?

g. She has a dog, ______ ______?

h. Jane can’t speak Chinese, ______ ______?

i. They haven’t been to India, ______ ______?

j. It’s cold today, ______ ______?

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen to Part 1. Lucy and Charles talk about each other’s rooms.

a. What do they like /dislike? What are their general criticisms?

b. Who said these things? What exactly were they talking about?

i. It doesn’t go with the rest of the room.

ii. It’s completely impractical.

iii. I just don’t see the point of them.

iv. They remind me of a dentist’s.

v. I wouldn’t have put them on the coffee table.

vi. I would never have long ones.

2. Now listen to Part 2, the designer’s comments.

a. Which room does he prefer?

b. What didn’t he like about…?

Charles’s room:

i. ____________________

ii. ____________________

iii. ____________________

iv. ____________________

Lucy’s room:

i. ____________________

ii. ____________________

VOCABULARY: MONEY 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word that follows.

a. Harry spends a lot each month on his ________ policy. Insure

b. The bank ________ asked to see my passport. Cash

c. This is not my ________ on the cheque. Sign

d. I’ve just spent all my ________ on a holiday in Mexico. Save

e. We had to take out a ________ from the bank to buy the car. Lend

f. In the end, the old vase proved to be ________. Worth

g. The millionaire lived in a ________ mansion. Luxury

h. I’m afraid that my business is not very ________. Profit

i. £1,000! Thank you for your ________. Generosity

j. Steve inherited £1,000,000 from a ________ relative. Wealth

2. Match each person from the list with a suitable description. Use each name once only.

accountant cashier heir manager pensioner

agent customer investor miser swindler

k. Someone who likes to keep money and not spend it. ________

l. Someone who inherits money or property. ________

m. Someone who runs a bank. ________

n. Someone who has retired. ________

o. Someone who keeps or checks financial records. ________

p. Someone who buys things in a shop. ________

q. Someone who pays out money in a bank. ________

r. Someone who represents others in business. ________

s. Someone who puts money into a business. ________

t. Someone who cheats people out of money. ________

WRITING: SPEECH 30 min. (3rd session)

President Barack Obama’s inaugural address, 20th January 2009

‘My fellow citizens:

I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition.

Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because we the people have remained faithful to the ideas of our forebears, and true to our founding documents.

So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans.

[…]

So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have travelled. In the year of America’s birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river. The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained with blood. At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people:

“Let it be told to the future world… that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive… that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet (it)”.

America, in the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children’s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God’s grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations.

Thank you. God bless you. And God bless the United States of America.’

Tips for writing a speech:

6. Be direct and address the audience.

7. State your ideas clearly, giving evidence when necessary. Use connectors to link your ideas.

8. Use imperatives as you are trying to obtain a certain effect from your audience.

9. Use a formal style, without contractions or colloquial expressions.

Exercise:

i. Write a speech as if you were a politician or the director of a company announcing some new measures to face a new situation.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about money.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about money.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Write the question tags.

a. You don’t smoke, ______ ______?

b. Antonio’s from Italy, ______ ______?

c. Your sister studied here last year, ______ ______?

d. He’ll be here tomorrow, ______ ______?

e. They didn’t come to class yesterday, ______ ______?

f. You were born in Athens, ______ ______?

g. She has a dog, ______ ______?

h. Jane can’t speak Chinese, ______ ______?

i. They haven’t been to India, ______ ______?

j. It’s cold today, ______ ______?

Vocabulary (2 points):

Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word that follows.

a. Harry spends a lot each month on his ________ policy. Insure

b. The bank ________ asked to see my passport. Cash

c. This is not my ________ on the cheque. Sign

d. I’ve just spent all my ________ on a holiday in Mexico. Save

e. We had to take out a ________ from the bank to buy the car. Lend

f. In the end, the old vase proved to be ________. Worth

g. The millionaire lived in a ________ mansion. Luxury

h. I’m afraid that my business is not very ________. Profit

i. £1,000! Thank you for your ________. Generosity

j. Steve inherited £1,000,000 from a ________ relative. Wealth

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

Same job, same salary.

Writing (2 points):

Everybody should be paid the same, regardless of the job.

Tapescript of the dictation:

At the same time we recognise that the work of the miner and the oil-rig labourer is both hard and dangerous, and they must be highly paid for the risks they take. However, you can argue that a man who does a job which brings him personal satisfaction is already receiving part of his reward in the form of the so-called ‘psychic wage’, and that it is the man with the boring, repetitive job who needs more money to make up for the soul-destroying monotony of his work.

DIDACTIC UNIT 12

I had my house painted.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about housework and expressions with do/make.

– To learn to write a newspaper article within the global focus of the term on informing.

– To learn to inform with the passive voice, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Passive voice and have something done

– Vocabulary: Housework and expressions with do/make

– Phonetics: æ/Λ, s/z/ƒ

– Writing: Newspaper article

– Communication: Informing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about housework and expressions with do/make.

– To be able to use the passive voice in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on æ/Λ, s/z/ƒ.

– To be able to write a newspaper article correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

The liberated woman

I teach in one of the roughest schools in London’s East End. People here have very rigid and conventional ideas and if they knew I was the wage-earner and my husband did all our housekeeping, I’m afraid we would be badly considered.

When I first met John I was looking after my two kids, going out to work and running the house. So, you see, the present arrangement is better.

I earn £20,000 a year, I know it sounds a lot, but it seems to go very quickly. I pay the house mortgage and all the big bills and I give John money to do the day-to-day spending.

When I come home there is always the most fantastic smell of dinner around. John is a marvellous cook, but he can do so many things. He dug up the garden and made a fish-pond and he completely remade the fireplace in the sitting room. He makes all our wine and beer besides baking our bread.

Neither of us does anything we don’t want to. I love teaching and John enjoys cooking. I change the beds and do the ironing. Otherwise, I leave everything to John or it doesn’t get done.

Among our friends there are a few couples like us. A man we know told his wife the other day: ‘you have the babies and I’ll stay home and look after them’. He felt that men are less neurotic about children and, therefore, better for them.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. What kind of explicit and implicit information does the passage offer about the woman’s past life?

2. What type of abilities has John got?

3. Answer the following questions:

a. Use your own words to explain the meaning of:

i. ‘to be the wage-earner’ (2)

ii. ‘arrangement’ (5)

b. Find the words in the text which correspond in meaning to the following definitions:

i. give somebody a claim on property as a security for payment of a debt or loan

ii. if not

PRONUNCIATION: æ/Λ s/z/ƒ 10 min. (1st session)

Some sounds may be difficult for you to pronounce. Make a special effort when you say words with these sounds, but remember, your pronunciation doesn’t have to be perfect, just intelligible.

You have to differentiate between æ/Λ:

a. cat /æ/: words with a written a. This sound is pronounced as if you were smiling ↗.

b. cut /Λ/: words with a written u. This sound is pronounced as if you were sad ↘.

You also have to differentiate between s/z/ƒ

a. /s/: voiceless s (initial, or final after voiceless consonants): silence, looks

b. /z/: voiced s (between vowels, or final after voiced consonants): music, hears; or written z: prize

c. /ƒ/: written sh: shirt

Exercises:

1. Pronounce the pair of words with the s/z/ƒ sounds. Can you see the difference?

a. socks / shocks

b. loose / lose

c. see / she

d. sell / shell

e. eyes / ice

f. price / prize

g. advice / advise

h. place / plays

2. Practise saying sentences with the s/z/ƒ sounds.

a. She’s got a passion for fashion.

b. She sells shoes and socks.

c. Guess the price and win the prize.

d. It’s easy to lose loose shoes.

3. Say whether the following words are pronounced with æ/Λ:

a. cut / cat

b. manage

c. success

d. battle

e. murder

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. The position of women in our society.

b. The qualities needed to enjoy a successful marriage.

GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE AND HAVE SOMETHING DONE 30 min. (2nd session)

We use the passive voice when we want to emphasize the object of the action, and when we don’t know the agent of the action or when it is obvious or not important.

To transform an active sentence into a passive sentence we must follow these steps:

a. The direct object becomes the subject in the passive sentence.

b. The verb is transformed into the passive voice:

Auxiliary to be in the same tense + past participle of the main verb

c. The subject is transformed into the agent in the passive sentence, and it is introduced by ‘by’.

Example of changes:

Present simple:

Peter builds the house. > The house is built by Peter.

Present continuous:

Peter is building the house. > The house is being built by Peter.

Present perfect simple:

Peter has built the house. > The house has been built by Peter.

Present perfect continuous:

Peter has been building the house. > The house has been being built by Peter.

Past simple:

Peter built the house. > The house was built by Peter.

Past continuous:

Peter was building the house. > The house was being built by Peter.

Past perfect simple:

Peter had built the house. > The house had been built by Peter.

Past perfect continuous:

Peter had been building the house. > The house had been being built by Peter.

Will (future):

Peter will build the house. > The house will be built by Peter.

Going to (future):

Peter is going to build the house. > The house is going to be built by Peter.

Can (modal verb):

Peter can build the house. > The house can be built by Peter.

There are also sentences where there are two objects: direct and indirect. In this case, there are two possible passive sentences, one starting with the direct object (as normal) and one starting with the indirect object.

I gave a book to Mary / I gave a book to Mary:

o A book was given to Mary by me. (starting with the direct object)

o Mary was given a book by me. (starting with the indirect object)

There is an impersonal kind of passive, with two possibilities:

They say that Peter is handsome. (present situation)

o It is said that Peter is beautiful.

o Peter is said to be beautiful.

They say that Peter won a prize. (past situation)

o It is said that Peter won a prize.

o Peter is said to have won a prize.

They say that Peter is going to win a prize. (future situation)

o It is said that Peter is going to win a prize.

o Peter is said to be going to win a prize.

There is also a causative passive, also called have something done with structures where the agent is obvious and it includes a service for which you pay to be done. This kind of passive has a very specific structure:

a. We change the auxiliary in the passive from to be to to have, and we write it in the correct tense

b. Then we write the thing that is going to be done.

c. Finally we write the participle of the main verb of the action to be done.

Example:

I will go to the hairdresser’s. > I will have my hair cut.

I went to the mechanic. > I had my car repaired.

Exercises:

1. Complete the text with the verbs in the passive in the correct tense.

Marty’s Clothing Company _______________ (set up) three years ago by my brother-in-law. He decided that the goods would _______________ (make) in the USA and then _______________ (export) to Europe. A small profit _______________ (make) in the first year, but the next year there were huge losses and my brother-in-law _______________ (declare) bankrupt. Unfortunately the debt is so big that he _______________ (just arrest). At the moment he _______________ (hold) at the local police station. His case _______________ (hear) in the Magistrate’s Court next week. We’re hoping he _______________ (release) but if he’s found guilty he might _______________ (send) to prison.

2. Rewrite the sentences to change the focus according to each object.

a. Her mother is teaching her French.

She ______________________________

b. The managing director gave the workers some bad news.

The workers ______________________________

c. The director has offered the staff a pay increase.

The staff ______________________________

d. My colleagues promised me their support.

I ______________________________

e. They sent my sister the clothes she had ordered.

My sister ______________________________

f. Someone advised me to stop eating fast food.

I ______________________________

g. They’ve asked John to go to the USA for a year.

John ______________________________

h. Some people sent us information about a new restaurant.

We ______________________________

3. Complete the sentences using have (in the correct form/tense) + object + the verbs in brackets.

a. My car broke down last week so I had to have it repaired. (it / repair)

b. I ______________________________ at the health centre yesterday. (my blood pressure / check)

c. Jim is ______________________________ tomorrow.

(his new computer / deliver)

d. How often ______________________________ these days?

(your hair / cut)

e. You’re sitting very close to the TV. ______________________________ recently? (your eyes / test)

f. I’m staying with my in-laws this week as I ______________________________. (my house / redecorate)

g. When was the last time you ______________________________ at the dentist’s? (a tooth / take out)

h. Have you ever thought of ______________________________?

(your portrait / paint)

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Listen to part of a radio programme called Crimebusters and answer these questions:

a. What was the crime?

b. How was the criminal caught?

2. Listen again. Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).

a. Matt’s car was stolen while he was at dinner with friends. ___

b. The car was found quite a long time after being stolen. ___

c. The police were not very confident of catching the thief. ___

d. The car had been slightly damaged. ___

e. The radio had been stolen. ___

f. Matt’s camera was not very valuable. ___

g. When Matt looked at his photos, there were some he didn’t recognize. ___

h. The police knew who the man in the photo was. ___

i. Lee and his girlfriend had taken pictures of each other in the car. ___

j. The police think Lee can’t be a very intelligent man. ___

3. Listen again and complete the gaps in the following extracts with the word you hear.

a. It had been just, you know, __________ at the side of the road, a couple of miles away.

b. The thief had crashed it and the back light was __________.

c. When I looked at them a bit more carefully I saw that the __________ was in my car.

d. He even posed with the __________ he’d used to break into the car.

VOCABULARY: HOUSEWORK AND EXPRESSIONS WITH DO/MAKE 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Complete the sentences with one word from the box.

garbage scrub maid dust wipe the table

do the washing do the washing up iron

a. You must ________ as the clothes are very dirty.

b. Take the ________ out to the container.

c. You must ________ the clothes after washing them.

d. You must ________ after having lunch.

e. You must ________ as the plates are very dirty.

f. You must ________ the furniture as it is very dirty.

g. You must ________ the floor with water as it is very dirty.

h. You must tell the ________ to clean the house as it is very dirty.

2. Complete the expressions in the sentences with ‘do/make’ in the correct tense.

a. She ________ progress at the moment.

b. Mr Jones ________ a lot of money last year.

c. Tommy ________ his best in the competition yesterday.

d. My friend ________ business in Europe next year.

e. What are you doing? I ________ plans for the holidays.

f. I always ________ my bed in the morning.

g. It ________ Ellen good to have a holiday for the last month.

h. Betty usually ________ the housework every morning.

i. He is a clever student and ________ a good impression already.

j. He ________ his duty and volunteered for the army.

k. They ________ fresh coffee in an hour.

l. I often ________ spelling mistakes.

m. My mother ________ the shopping every week.

n. Don’t ________ any noise.

o. Johnny always ________ excuses when he is late.

WRITING: NEWSPAPER ARTICLE 30 min. (3rd session)

From The Times

April 8, 2010

Sam Lister, Health Editor

Conjoined Benhaffaf twins successfully separated in 14-hour operation

The parents of conjoined twins said today their baby sons had won the ‘battle of their lives’ after they were successfully separated.

Hassan and Hussein Benhaffaf, now four months old, are in intensive care in a stable condition following a 14-hour operation on Wednesday at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London. The boys were joined at the chest and are thought to have shared a liver, but no other major organs.

In statements released this morning, the hospital confirmed that the procedure, which involved about 20 staff, had been completed without unexpected problems, while the twins’ parents paid tribute to their ‘little fighters’.

‘The sun is shining today for our two little fighters, who have won the battle of their lives,’ Angie and Azzedine Benhaffaf, from east Cork in Ireland, said. ‘Words cannot express the relief and love we feel for our two boys’. ‘We thank God, we thank the surgeons and the gifted team at Great Ormond Street Hospital, and we thank from the bottom of our hearts the Irish nation and everyone who prayed for our beloved twins’.

Edward Kiely, consultant pediatric surgeon at the hospital who led the surgery, said: ‘I can confirm that the twins Hassan and Hussein Benhaffaf have been separated in a 14-hour operation yesterday’. ‘The twins are in intensive care and are sedated but stable. We are pleased with how the operation went.’

The twins were born in December at University College London Hospital. Conjoined twins occur in about one in every 50,000 pregnancies in developed countries. The Great Ormond Street team involved in yesterday’s complex operation included four anesthetists and four surgeons, who worked in shifts.

The Benhaffafs relocated their entire family — including daughters Malika, four, and Iman, two — for the operation and recovery period and expect to remain in London for up to four months. A special fund was set up in Ireland to help the family cover medical costs.

Tips for writing a newspaper article:

a. Write a newspaper article in a formal way. Remember it is for a newspaper, so you have to be objective, not including your opinion unless you are writing for the opinion articles section.

b. Structure the text in the following parts:

i. Headline

ii. Opening: what, who, where, when, why

iii. Body or development of the news

iv. Conclusion

c. Use the passive voice and the reported speech as the major tenses as you are trying to be objective.

Exercise:

1. Write a newspaper article telling a recent event that has shocked you.

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about housework and expressions with ‘do/make’.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about housework and expressions with ‘do/make’.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Rewrite the sentences to change the focus according to each object.

a. Her mother is teaching her French.

She ______________________________

b. The managing director gave the workers some bad news.

The workers ______________________________

c. The director has offered the staff a pay increase.

The staff ______________________________

d. My colleagues promised me their support.

I ______________________________

e. They sent my sister the clothes she had ordered.

My sister ______________________________

f. Someone advised me to stop eating fast food.

I ______________________________

g. They’ve asked John to go to the USA for a year.

John ______________________________

h. Some people sent us information about a new restaurant.

We ______________________________

Vocabulary (2 points):

Complete the expressions in the sentences with ‘do/make’ in the correct tense.

a. She ________ progress at the moment.

b. Mr Jones ________ a lot of money last year.

c. Tommy ________ his best in the competition yesterday.

d. My friend ________ business in Europe next year.

e. What are you doing? I ________ plans for the holidays.

f. I always ________ my bed in the morning.

g. It ________ Ellen good to have a holiday for the last month.

h. Betty usually ________ the housework every morning.

i. He is a clever student and ________ a good impression already.

j. He ________ his duty and volunteered for the army.

k. They ________ fresh coffee in an hour.

l. I often ________ spelling mistakes.

m. My mother ________ the shopping every week.

n. Don’t ________ any noise.

o. Johnny always ________ excuses when he is late.

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

The qualities needed to enjoy a successful marriage.

Writing (2 points):

The position of women in our society.

Tapescript of the dictation:

When I come home there is always the most fantastic smell of dinner around. John is a marvellous cook, but he can do so many things. He dug up the garden and made a fish-pond and he completely remade the fireplace in the sitting room. He makes all our wine and beer besides baking our bread. Neither of us does anything we don’t want to. I love teaching and John enjoys cooking.


DIDACTIC UNIT 13

John said that he would come.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about the media.

– To learn to write a report within the global focus of the term on informing.

– To learn to inform with reported speech, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Reported speech

– Vocabulary: The media

– Phonetics: Emphasis

– Writing: Report

– Communication: Informing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about the media.

– To be able to use the reported speech in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on emphasis.

– To be able to write a report correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

The media game

There used to be a time when sport was confined to the back pages of newspapers. The match was described and the performance of the players was praised or criticized. But their private lives were just that – private.

Nowadays, professional sport is fast becoming a high-profile, accident-prone branch of show business. The front pages of tabloid newspapers are just as likely to be filled with the antics of football players and athletes as with scandals bout film stars, rock singers and princesses. In particular, tennis provides a ready source of bid stories for the media: drugs, stabbings and tax fraud are just some of the scandals to have hit the game in the last few years.

Jennifer Capriati dropped out of tennis and got into drugs at the age of 16. The media followed her everywhere. Steffi Graf’s father was sent to court, accused of massive tax evasion involving Steffi’s money. It was on the front pages all over the world. Monica Seles was stabbed on court by a Steffi Graf fan. It was headline TV news. And these are only a few of the most publicized dramas.

Part of the problem with tennis is that the players are often teenagers, not adults. Players may start competing professionally at the age of 14. Boris Becker won his first Wimbledon title at the age of 17. Many of these stars have had no childhood. They have been pushed from the moment they could hold a racket to become tennis stars.

If they do well, they receive immense amounts of media attention. And the younger they are, the more hype there is. Everything they do is scrutinized. They become, in a sense, victims of their own success. As Jennifer Capriati remarked at the age of 14, “All this media attention! It’s out of control!”

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. According to the text, are these statements true or false? Give reasons for your answers.

a. In the past, tennis players received as much front page media attention as they do now.

b. The front pages of tabloid newspapers are usually devoted to serious news stories.

c. A fan of Steffi Graf hurt Monica Seles.

2. Write a summary of the text in about 50 words.

3. Choose the correct meaning of these words.

a. ‘antics’ (line 6)

i. sporting triumphs

ii. old people

iii. silly behaviour

b. ‘hype’ (line 21)

i. exaggerated media publicity

ii. personal scandals

iii. sport

PRONUNCIATION: EMPHASIS 10 min. (1st session)

In English we normally stress the important ‘information’ words (nouns, verbs and adjectives). But we sometimes put extra emphasis on words or syllables to who how we feel, or that we feel strongly, e.g. I’d LOVE to come but I’m exHAUsted.

You can also emphasize not only with pronunciation, but also placing an element in the first position of a sentence, sometimes even causing inversion, e.g. Hardly ever did I go.

Exercise:

1. Underline the stressed words and syllables in each sentence.

a. She’s addicted to coffee.

b. I’m completely hooked on that programme.

c. My sister’s obsessed with her new boyfriend.

d. He’s very interested in astrology.

e. She’s very fond of her cousin.

f. I’m not very keen on sport.

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a famous sports star?

b. ‘Athletes are paid too much money’. What do you think?

c. ‘The media should not be allowed to write about stars’ private lives’. Do you agree?

GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH 30 min. (2nd session)

We use the reported speech, also called indirect speech, when we want to report back what other person has told us before. For that reason, we have to make some changes in the main verb, as well as in the personal pronouns and time expressions.

The change in the verbs is called backshift as we go one tense back, being the general change from present to past.

Present simple > past simple

Peter told me: ‘I am a lawyer’. > Peter told me that he was a lawyer.

Present continuous > past continuous

Peter told me: ‘I am building a house’. > Peter told me that he was building a house.

Present perfect simple > Past perfect simple

Peter told me: ‘I have built a house’. > Peter told me that he had built a house.

Present perfect continuous > Past perfect continuous

Peter told me: ‘I have been building a house’. > Peter told me that he had been building a house.

Past simple > Past perfect simple

Peter told me: ‘I built a house’. > Peter told me that he had built a house.

Past continuous > Past perfect continuous

Peter told me: ‘I was building a house’. > Peter told me that he had been building a house.

Past perfect simple > Past perfect simple

Peter told me: ‘I had built a house’. > Peter told me that he had built a house.

Past perfect continuous > Past perfect continuous

Peter told me: ‘I had been building a house’. > Peter told me that he had been building a house.

Will (future) > would (conditional)

Peter told me: ‘I will build a house’. > Peter told me that he would build a house.

Can (modal verb) > could (past of the modal verb)

Peter told me: ‘I can build a house’. > Peter told me that he could build a house.

Imperative > to-infinitive

Peter told me: ‘Build the house!’ > Peter told me to build the house.

The change in the personal pronouns can be seen in the following example:

Peter told me: ‘I will win the prize’. > Peter told me that he would win the prize.

These changes must be done because the person who reports the action is not the same as the person that originally said the sentence.

The change in the time expressions must follow these rules:

Today > that day

Yesterday > the previous day / the day before

Tomorrow > the following day / the next day

Now > then

In this moment > in that moment

Here > there

Two years ago > two years before

Example:

– Peter told me: ‘I will buy a book tomorrow’. > Peter told me that he would buy a book the following day.

These changes must be done because the time of the action is not the same as when it was originally told.

When we are reporting questions we have to pay special attention to the different possibilities:

a. Yes/No questions:

He asked me: ‘Do you know the answer?’ > He asked me if I knew the answer.

(introducing the reporting question with an if and omitting the auxiliary, doing directly the change in the main verb)

b. Wh- questions:

He asked me: ‘Where do you live?’ > He asked me where I lived.

(introducing the reporting question with the wh-element and the doing an inversion: writing first the subject and then the verb, as it is no more an interrogative sentence but an declarative one).

Exercises:

1. Write the conversation in reported speech.

a. ‘What time did you get home last night?’

Doreen asked Jim ____________________________

b. ‘I arrived just before midnight.’

Jim replied ____________________________

c. So where were you from eight o’clock until midnight?’

Doreen asked ____________________________

d. ‘I was working late.’

He replied ____________________________

e. ‘You’ve worked late every night this week.’

Doreen said ____________________________

f. ‘We have to finish the project by the end of the month.’

Jim told her ____________________________

g. ‘When will we have some time together?’

Doreen asked him ____________________________

h. ‘Can you turn on the TV, please?’

Jim asked ____________________________

i. ‘Don’t be so lazy!’

Doreen told him ____________________________

2. Write your own report of the conversation, using the plan given with the reporting verbs:

Conversation:

David: Now, then, don’t run away! What were you doing in my orchard? You’ve stolen some apples, haven’t you?

Gary: No, I haven’t.

David: Well, show me what you’ve got in your pockets!

Gary: No, I won’t.

David: If you don’t, I’ll give you a clip round the ear.

Gary: Oh, don’t get so excited! I took three. But I really climbed into your orchard just for the fun of it.

David: Hm, I’ll tell your father if you do it again.

Gary: Please don’t do that! He’ll be very angry if he finds out.

Report of the conversation:

David told ____________________. He asked ____________________, and accused ____________________. Gary denied ____________________, so David ordered ____________________, but Gary ____________________. David threatened ____________________ if ____________________, and then Gary told ____________________. He admitted that ____________________, but said that he ____________________. David thought for a moment and then threatened ____________________. Gary begged ____________________ because his father ____________________.

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Read the six statements a-f below. Then listen to speakers 1-6. Which topics are they discussing? Write 1-6 in the boxes. What words or phrases helped you?

a. More TV channels means more variety and better programmes. ___

b. TV companies shouldn’t interrupt films with commercials. ___

c. The media can make mediocre people famous. ___

d. TV should show less football and more minority sports. ___

e. TV, radio, and the Internet have made newspapers irrelevant. ___

f. We shouldn’t blame TV for children’s bad behaviour. ___

2. Listen again and tick (√) if the speaker agrees with the statement, or cross (X) if they disagree. Give their reasons.

VOCABULARY: THE MEDIA 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Complete the text with words from the list.

articles biased censorship front page headlines

interview intrudes in make up objective ‘paparazzi’ serious press tabloid press fake a story

In Britain there are two kinds of newspapers (or papers), the ________ (newspapers which focus mainly on sensational news stories, e.g. the Sun, the Daily Express) and the ________ (newspapers which focus on issues of general importance, e.g. The Times, the Independent). The tabloid press generally uses bigger, more dramatic ________ (especially on the ________) and shorter ________ . A good newspaper should be ________ (based only on facts and not influenced by personal feelings or politics). Unfortunately this is not usually the case, and editors and journalists are often ________ (unfairly influenced) in favour of a particular political party. Sometimes governments stop a newspaper from publishing a story. This is called ________. Recently there has been a lot of controversy about the way the press ________ the private lives of famous people to get ________. The so-called ________ (photographers) wait outside their house for hours to try and ________ the person. They take photos without the person’s knowledge or permission (using telephoto lenses), and pay people for information. If they cannot find any real information, they simply ________ stories about them which are not true. Nowadays they can even ________ photographs, for example by re-touching them.

2. Complete the text with words from the list.

advertise audience figures broadcast cable and satellite

channels commercials listeners standard of programmes

stations viewers

The arrival of ________ TV has meant a huge increase in the number of TV ________ which ________ can watch. TV channels compete to have the highest ________ (the number of people watching a programme). Private TV channels get their income from companies who pay to show ________ (or adverts) between and during programmes to ________ their products. While the variety of channels has gone up in recent years, the general ________ (quality) being shown has definitely gone down. Radio ________ can also choose between many different ________, many of which ________ 24 hours a day.

WRITING: REPORT 30 min. (3rd session)

To: J Harman, Personnel Department

From: H Hunter

Re: Housing for Mr Klimt and family

Findings

Here is the information on the three places I visited last week:

1. Apartment 41, Victoria Tower (£1800 per month). This is a two-bedroom flat, and although it is luxurious, it would be rather small for a family of four.

2. Meadow Farmhouse (£2050 per month). This is a five-bedroom farmhouse in the country with good rail links into the city centre. However, it is expensive and there are no suitable schools nearby.

3. Holly House, Ashton Street (£1550 per month). This is a tree-bedroom house with a small garden. Although the house is in need of redecoration, the garden is pleasant and the rent is reasonable. The house is on a bus route and close to the Ashton International School.

Recommendations

I recommend that we rent Holly House and arrange for it to be redecorated before the Klimt family arrive. I look forward to discussing the matter with you at our next meeting.

Tips for writing a report:

a. A report is a formal writing, so you cannot use contractions or colloquial expressions.

b. Structure the letter in the following parts:

i. Opening.

ii. Findings: Include factors you think are relevant, such as price, location, facilities… Every factor must occupy one paragraph each.

iii. Recommendations: say which hotel is the most suitable, and include an appropriate ending.

Exercise:

1. An American College is going to hold a five-day conference in your country. You have been asked by the College Principal to suggest three possible hotels where the conference could be held. Write a report on what you have found out and recommend a suitable hotel.


INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about the media.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about the media.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Write the conversation in reported speech.

a. ‘What time did you get home last night?’

Doreen asked Jim ____________________________

b. ‘I arrived just before midnight.’

Jim replied ____________________________

c. So where were you from eight o’clock until midnight?’

Doreen asked ____________________________

d. ‘I was working late.’

He replied ____________________________

e. ‘You’ve worked late every night this week.’

Doreen said ____________________________

f. ‘We have to finish the project by the end of the month.’

Jim told her ____________________________

g. ‘When will we have some time together?’

Doreen asked him ____________________________

h. ‘Can you turn on the TV, please?’

Jim asked ____________________________

i. ‘Don’t be so lazy!’

Doreen told him ____________________________

Vocabulary (2 points):

Complete the text with words from the list.

advertise audience figures broadcast cable and satellite

channels commercials listeners standard of programmes

stations viewers

The arrival of ________ TV has meant a huge increase in the number of TV ________ which ________ can watch. TV channels compete to have the highest ________ (the number of people watching a programme). Private TV channels get their income from companies who pay to show ________ (or adverts) between and during programmes to ________ their products. While the variety of channels has gone up in recent years, the general ________ (quality) being shown has definitely gone down. Radio ________ can also choose between many different ________, many of which ________ 24 hours a day.

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

‘Athletes are paid too much money’. What do you think?

Writing (2 points):

‘The media should not be allowed to write about stars’ private lives’. Do you agree?

Tapescript of the dictation:

Part of the problem with tennis is that the players are often teenagers, not adults. Players may start competing professionally at the age of 14. Boris Becker won his first Wimbledon title at the age of 17. Many of these stars have had no childhood. They have been pushed from the moment they could hold a racket to become tennis stars.

DIDACTIC UNIT 14

John ordered me to come.

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary about travel and holidays.

– To learn to write a review within the global focus of the term on informing.

– To learn to inform with reporting verbs, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Reporting verbs and gerund/infinitive

– Vocabulary: Travel and holidays

– Phonetics: <th>: θ/đ, dς/tƒ

– Writing: Review

– Communication: Informing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to talk about travel and holidays.

– To be able to use the reporting verbs in different communicative situations.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on <th>: θ/đ, dς/tƒ.

– To be able to write a review correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Adventure tourism

Travel and tourism are big business in South Africa nowadays. But the people of Mossel Bay, 375 kilometres east of Cape Town, say that local business man Roy Portway has taken it too far. He has been blamed for attracting dozens of highly dangerous great white sharks into the bay and threatening the town’s tourist industry.

In order to attract big-spending adventure tourists, Portway advertises ‘the experience of a lifetime’. To make this possible, he puts a mixture of fishheads and blood in a sack which he then tows behind his boat. Sharks smell the blood from as far as 20 kilometres away, come up from the deep and swim around the boat in a frenzy. Then comes the exciting bit. A specially strengthened steel cage is lowered into the water – with a tourist inside! The tourist then has the thrill of being able to swim among, and touch, the most feared sharks in the world, each 6 or 7 metres long – and take close-up photos to prove it.

But whilst danger-seeking tourists have travelled from all over the world to enjoy this experience, other tourists who just want to swim, water-ski or windsurf are becoming more and more worried. Local business people have refused to put up signs warning that there are sharks in the area, but may believe it is only a matter of time before a tourist is attacked and killed by a shark. So far they have been lucky. A surfer has had a chunk of this surfboard bitten off, but he managed to swim to shore unhurt. Shark experts, however, believe that once a shark has tasted human blood, it will come back for more. If this were to happen, the tourist industry of Mossel Bay, as well as a number of swimmers, would be dead.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Are these statements true or false? Give reasons for your answers.

a. All tourism in Mossel Bay is based around sharks.

b. Roy Portway tries to protect the adventure tourists from the sharks while they are in the water.

c. The sharks in the area are not very dangerous.

d. The sharks have attacked and killed a man who was surfing.

2. Answer the following questions in your own words.

a. Is tourism important in South Africa at the moment? How do we know?

b. How does Roy Portway attract sharks?

c. Why are other tourists and businessmen worried?

d. How many people have been killed by sharks up to now?

3. Find words in the text which mean the same as the following.

a. putting in danger

b. excitement

PRONUNCIATION: <th>: θ/đ dς/tƒ 10 min. (1st session)

The spelling th can be pronounced as θ/đ:

a. think /θ/

b. although, this /đ/

The spellings g/j, or even ct, is normally pronounced ς/dς, whereas the spelling ch is pronounced tƒ:

a. George /dςo:dς/

b. church / tƒ3:tƒ/

Exercises:

1. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the θ/đ sounds:

a. there

b. three

c. path

d. through

e. death

f. worth

g. breathe

h. theme

2. Pronounce the following sentences paying attention to the dς/tƒ sounds:

a. I enjoy chatting and telling jokes.

b. Actually, Gill and Charlie speak German, not French.

c. I’ve just made the children some orange juice.

d. If I could choose my job, I’d be a researcher.

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. You are on holiday in Mossel Bay and took a trip in Roy Portway’s boat. Describe your holiday.

b. Describe a place where you would like to spend a holiday.

GRAMMAR: REPORTING VERBS AND GERUND/INFINITIVE 30 min. (2nd session)

Reporting verbs:

When we are reporting back what other person has said before, he must use a reporting verb, being the general ones say and tell.

– We use say when we are going to specify only the direct object:

o Peter said that he had won a prize.

When we want to specify the indirect object we mustn’t forget to include a to after say:

o Peter said to me that he had won a prize.

– We use tell when we are going to specify first the indirect object and then the direct object:

o Peter told me that he had won a prize.

When we are reporting back a question we use ask.

Peter asked me: ‘Have you ever won a prize?’

> He asked me if I had ever won a prize.

When we are reporting back a command (imperative) we can use the general verb tell or the more specific one order.

Peter told me: ‘Study more!’

> He told me to study more.

> He ordered me to study more.

If we want to be more specific we can use more specific reporting verbs that follow their own specific patterns:

Peter told me: ‘I will do it’.

o Peter told me that he would do it. (general verb)

o Peter promised to do it. (specific verb: promise + to-infinitive)

Peter told me: ‘I won’t do it’.

o Peter told me that he wouldn’t do it. (general verb)

o Peter refused to do it. (specific verb: refuse + to-infinitive)

Peter told me: ‘Let’s go to the cinema’.

o Peter told me to go the cinema. (general verb)

o Peter suggested going to the cinema. (specific verb: suggest + -ing)

Peter told me: ‘I’m sorry for being late’.

o Peter told me that he was sorry for being late. (general verb)

o Peter apologized for being late. (specific verb: apologize + -ing)

Reporting verbs usually followed by to-infinitive:

Offer, refuse, threaten, agree, promise, ask, invite, advise, encourage, remind, warn, tell, convince, persuade…

Reporting verbs usually followed by -ing:

Apologize for, admit, deny, insist on, recommend, regret, suggest…

Gerund/infinitive:

As we have seen with the reporting verbs, when there are two verbs one after the other, the second one can be in a to-infinitive, a bare infinitive (infinitive without to) or a gerund (-ing). We are going to see some rules to be able to predict the form of the second verb:

We use the gerund:

– After prepositions

– After certain verbs: like, love, hate, enjoy, mind, finish, stop, be worth.

– When the verb is the subject of the sentence

Examples:

She left without saying goodbye. (after preposition)

I love cooking but I hate cleaning. (after verb)

Eating in restaurants is expensive. (subject)

We use the to-infinitive:

– To answer the question Why? (reason, purpose)

– After adjectives

– After certain verbs: would like, want, need, decide, hope, expect, plan, forget, seem, try, promise, offer, refuse, learn, manage, afford.

Examples:

Why did you go to Mexico? – To see my aunt and uncle. (reason)

It is difficult to learn a language. (after adjective)

Would you like to go? (after verb)

We use the bare infinitive (infinitive without to):

– After most modal and auxiliary verbs

– After make and let

Examples:

You should study more.

Let me go, please.

You have to be careful when two verbs have several options but with different meaning:

Stop:

o I stopped working. (= stop doing one action)

o I stopped to work. (= stop one action to do another one)

Remember:

o I remember closing the door. (= remembering a past action)

o Remember to close the door. (= reminding somebody to do something)

Exercises:

1. Correct these typical mistakes about reporting verbs.

a. My teacher advised me that I took the exam.

b. James offered giving me a lift home.

c. He apologized for break the vase.

d. She asked me that I didn’t tell anybody.

e. The blackmailer threatened selling the photos.

f. They agreed changing my jacket for a bigger size.

2. Rewrite the sentences using the verb in brackets.

a. ‘Yes, it was me. I killed him’. (admit)

The murderer ______________________________

b. ‘I didn’t steal the money.’ (deny)

The burglar ______________________________

c. ‘Let’s go on a safari together.’ (persuade us)

Our friends ______________________________

d. ‘I think you should take a taxi.’ (recommend)

My friend ______________________________

e. ‘I wish I’d studied more when I was younger.’ (regret)

My sister ______________________________

3. Write your own report of the conversation, using the plan given with the reporting verbs.

Conversation:

Ronald: Waiter, this wine tastes sour. Try it!

Waiter: Hm. Yes, it is a bit strange. We changed our suppliers last month and we have had a few complaints since then. Shall I bring you another bottle?

Ronald: I’d rather have beer.

Waiter: Would you like to try a different label, sir? We won’t charge you if you don’t like it.

Ronald: All right. But you had better change your suppliers, or you’ll have a lot of dissatisfied customers.

Report of the conversation:

Ronald complained ____________________. He told ____________________. The waiter did so, and agreed ____________________. He explained ____________________. He offered ____________________. Ronald said ____________________. Then the waiter invited ____________________ and promised ____________________. Ronald ____________________ but suggested ____________________, or they ____________________.

4. Circle the correct answer, whether the infinitive, the bare infinitive or the gerund, according to each verb.

a. Laura didn’t enjoy having / to have acupuncture.

b. The lion managed escape / to escape from the zoo.

c. Do you want to go / going out tonight?

d. Do you think you can work out / working out the answer?

e. It’s a secret. I’ve promised not to tell / not telling anyone.

f. You must arrive / arriving on time for the interview.

g. I don’t mind to stay / staying in this evening.

h. My boss doesn’t let me make / making personal phone calls at work.

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. You’re going to listen to an interview with Dr David Weeks, who calls some people ‘superyoung’. Decide which two factors in the list you think are not important in the phenomenon of ‘superyoung’ people. Listen for more details about each factor.

genres reading / watching TV love /friendships sport personality

number of children lifestyle diet blood pressure smoking

travel plastic surgery

2. Now listen to some extracts. Write the exact words.

a. There are many other factors ________ ________ ________ ________.

b. They often have friendships and relationships with people ________ ________ ________.

c. They’re ________ ________ ________ people who wake up refreshed in the morning.

d. ________ ________ they are also people who read more and watch less TV.

e. They tend to prefer individual sports ________ ________ ________ or walking.

f. We also discovered that they ________ ________ ________ ________ honest.

g. Non-smokers outnumbered smokers ________ ________ ________ ________ ________.

h. No, in fact ________ ________ ________ ________.

VOCABULARY: TRAVEL AND HOLIDAYS 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Choose the most suitable word or words underlined.

a. David’s plane was cancelled/delayed by thick fog.

b. The ship’s owner agreed to give the crew/passengers a pay-rise.

c. The plane from Geneva has just grounded/landed.

d. We hope that you will enjoy your flight/flying.

e. Because of heavy snow in London, their plane was diverted/deviated to Manchester.

f. I won’t be long. I’m just packing my last luggage/suitcase.

g. A sign above the seats in the plane says “Fasten your lifebelt/seat belt”.

h. You have to check in/check up an hour before the plane leaves.

i. All duty free goods must be declared/surrendered at the customs.

j. On the plane a stewardess/waitress brought me a newspaper.

k. The plane took off/took up and was soon high over the city.

l. I bout a simple/single ticket, as I was going to return by car.

2. Match these words with the definitions given.

an expedition a flight a tour a voyage a package tour an itinerary a trip travel a cruise a crossing

a. A journey by ship for pleasure. ________

b. A journey by plane. ________

c. The plan of a journey. ________

d. An informal word for journey, even also for a short journey. ________

e. A journey for a scientific or special purpose. ________

f. A holiday which includes organised travel and accommodation. ________

g. Taking journeys, as a general idea. ________

h. A journey by sea. ________

i. An organised journey to see the sights of a place. ________

j. A journey from one side of the sea to the other. ________

WRITING: REVIEW 30 min. (3rd session)

Avatar Review

I went to see Avatar with my brother and my parents today.

I’m going to start by talking about the special effects. I… am not sold on the whole 3D thing. My brain does a decent job of translating the normal 2D images into a 3D world all by itself. And the 3D, while it is kind of cool, is still all in front of you. You’re still looking through a window at it. When it gets to the point that we’re surrounded by it, I’ll revise my opinion. But for the moment, I find it distracting.

The world-building in this movie was fantastic and the scenery was stunning, but I wasn’t allowed to drift away from the action to look at the flowers; they were out of focus. Not fuzzy 2D out of focus, but real-life 3D out of focus as though your eyes were crossed or something, and my eyes kept trying to compensate for that, which was making me dizzy. It’s both good and bad, I suppose. The filmmaker can direct your attention precisely where he wants it. But there were times I didn’t like being held for ransom like that.

One of the things I enjoyed most about the movie, which is linked back to the world-building I mentioned earlier, is that the aliens were, in fact, alien. Particularly the character of Neytiri, as played by Zoe Saldana. And it’s not about ‘ooh, look at how different they are,’ although there was a lot of that going on. It was in the way that her reactions to people and to events were subtly different from what a human’s would be. And I suppose I’m really commenting on the quality of her acting, even through the translation of the CGI. She was delightful and quixotic and different. I loved how her reactions would take me by surprise. And I was intensely disappointed when I found out she cried tears to show distress, and she kissed on the lips to show affection. She had been so unique up until those points that I fully expected something different.

Yes, there were sections where the dialogue was cheesy, and yes, the plot was kind of paint-by-numbers, but overall, I enjoyed the characters and I was interested in their story and their world. I’d recommend going to see it once, just for the fun of it.

Tips for writing a review:

b. Write the review in a formal style, specifying all the details of the book or film as well as your opinion; try to give arguments to justify it.

c. Structure the text in the following parts:

i. Introduction to the author and book/film: title, type, when…?

ii. Introduction to characters and outline of the plot: where, when, what…?

iii. Your opinion of the book/film: like, dislike, recommend…?

d. Use expressions like:

i. It was written/directed by… / It stars…

ii. It is based on… / It tells the story of… / It is about…

iii. It takes place / It is set in…

iv. In my opinion… / I think that… / I would recommend…

v. What I liked best was… / What I didn’t like was…

Exercise:

1. Write a review of a book read or a film seen recently.

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about travel and holidays.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about travel and holidays.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Rewrite the sentences using the verb in brackets.

a. ‘Yes, it was me. I killed him’. (admit)

The murderer ______________________________

b. ‘I didn’t steal the money.’ (deny)

The burglar ______________________________

c. ‘Let’s go on a safari together.’ (persuade us)

Our friends ______________________________

d. ‘I think you should take a taxi.’ (recommend)

My friend ______________________________

e. ‘I wish I’d studied more when I was younger.’ (regret)

My sister ______________________________

Vocabulary (2 points):

Choose the most suitable word or words underlined.

a. David’s plane was cancelled/delayed by thick fog.

b. The ship’s owner agreed to give the crew/passengers a pay-rise.

c. The plane from Geneva has just grounded/landed.

d. We hope that you will enjoy your flight/flying.

e. Because of heavy snow in London, their plane was diverted/deviated to Manchester.

f. I won’t be long. I’m just packing my last luggage/suitcase.

g. A sign above the seats in the plane says “Fasten your lifebelt/seat belt”.

h. You have to check in/check up an hour before the plane leaves.

i. All duty free goods must be declared/surrendered at the customs.

j. On the plane a stewardess/waitress brought me a newspaper.

k. The plane took off/took up and was soon high over the city.

l. I bout a simple/single ticket, as I was going to return by car.

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

Describe a place where you would like to spend a holiday.

Writing (2 points):

You are on holiday in Mossel Bay and took a trip in Roy Portway’s boat. Describe your holiday.

Tapescript of the dictation:

But whilst danger-seeking tourists have travelled from all over the world to enjoy this experience, other tourists who just want to swim, water-ski or windsurf are becoming more and more worried. Local business people have refused to put up signs warning that there are sharks in the area, but may believe it is only a matter of time before a tourist is attacked and killed by a shark.


DIDACTIC UNIT 15

Could you tell me exactly where you were at 8 o’clock pm?

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:

– To practice the four skills: reading, speaking, listening and writing.

– To learn vocabulary with word-formation.

– To learn to write a summary within the global focus of the term on informing.

– To learn to inform with indirect questions and politeness, paying attention to the pronunciation.

Contents:

– Grammar: Indirect questions and politeness

– Vocabulary: Word-formation

– Phonetics: Homonyms, homophones and homographs

– Writing: Summary

– Communication: Informing

Evaluation criteria:

– To be able to acquire new vocabulary following the word-formation procedures.

– To be able to use the indirect questions in different communicative situations, especially the situations where politeness is required.

– To be able to speak correctly focusing on homonyms, homophones and homographs.

– To be able to write a summary correctly.

READING 20 min. (1st session)

Suffering children

Many adults experience a sort of moral dislocation when they confront bullying. They wouldn’t accept physical abuse directed against themselves. But they expect such acceptance from their pupils or children. And all sort of arguments are used: suffering bullying is part of growing up; we were bullied and it has not hurt us; children should not tell tales; bullying is just children’s play; or victims should learn to stand up for themselves.

Teachers sometimes take the side of bullies. They may pick on the victims to win popularity with other pupils. If children have the courage to complain, teachers often do not believe them, do not want to know, or do not care. Head teachers sometimes do not easily admit that bullying exists for fear of harming the reputation of the school.

Many adults, even if they feel uncomfortable about bullying, are very pessimistic. Boys will be boys, they say (or girls, girls). Nothing can be done to prevent it. But in a culture in which bullying is socially unacceptable, it is far less common. Turn a blind eye to it, and given human nature (in adults as well as children) it is more likely to occur. So, most important is to change the culture in the schools. Pupils and teachers alike should be encouraged to condemn bullying frankly and clearly and to support the victims.

Reading comprehension exercises:

1. Answer these questions on the passage.

a. How far are teachers responsible for the existence of bullying?

b. Is there a way to stop bullying?

2. Are the statements true or false? Justify your answer.

a. Bullying occurs because it is socially acceptable.

b. Some adults wouldn’t mind being bullied.

3. Explain in your own words the meaning of the following expressions:

a. ‘stand up for themselves’ (line 5)

b. ‘it is more likely to occur’ (line 15)

4. Find in the text the word which means:

a. to have consideration for, to mind

b. stimulated

PRONUNCIATION: HOMONYMS, HOMOPHONES, HOMOGRAPHS 10 min. (1st session)

Homonyms are words with the same pronunciation and spelling, but different meaning: row can mean the noun ‘queue’ or the verb ‘sail’.

Homographs are words with the same spelling, but two pronunciations with different meaning: row /rәu/ means ‘queue/sail’, whereas row /rau/ means ‘argument/discussion’.

Homophones are words with the same pronunciation, but different spelling and meaning: advice (noun) / advise (verb), or with a difference in stress like in protest (noun) / protest (verb).

Exercises:

1. Identify the homonyms in these sentences. Make sentences for the other meanings.

a. One swallow doesn’t make a summer.

b. We spotted a really rare bird in the forest.

c. Don’t go making any rash promises that you can’t keep!

d. Lessons were interrupted for a fire drill.

e. I think we should scrap that idea. It’s rubbish.

f. Stop rambling and get to the point!

2. Complete the sentences with the correct homophone of the following words:

wail whirled fort heir site hire caught soar

a. They tied their boat to a small ________ in the harbour.

b. His ________ remarks upset all those present.

c. Public speaking makes my voice go ________.

d. They say it was a ________ gunman that shot the president.

e. The thieves got away with a large ________ of old bank notes.

f. Squirrels ________ nuts in woods and gardens.

g. She lifted her ________ and smiled at her new husband.

h. This is only a ________ contract. You don’t have to sign it.

3. Find the two pronunciations and the meanings of the words in your box. Make sentences to illustrate the meanings.

a. wind

b. refuse

c. defect

d. wound

e. minute

f. object

SPEAKING 15 min. (1st session)

a. How can bullying influence personal life.

b. Life teaches you much more than school.

GRAMMAR: INDIRECT QUESTIONS AND POLITENESS 30 min. (2nd session)

British people are very polite and this is reflected in some specific structures to sound more polite, one of them being the indirect questions.

Indirect questions:

Yes/No questions:

Do you like chocolate? > Could you tell me if you like chocolate?

Is the train station near here? > Do you know if the train station is near here?

Wh-questions:

How can I get to the train station? > Could you tell me how I can get to the train station?

Where is the nearest bus stop? > Do you know where the nearest bus stop is?

As you can see in the examples, the indirect questions are introduced by polite expressions like ‘Could you tell me…?’ or ‘Do you know…’.

– With yes/no questions, in the indirect questions you include an if, you omit the auxiliary verb and write the subject and then the verb in the same tense.

– With wh-questions, in the indirect questions you write the wh-element, and then you do an inversion writing in the first place the subject and then the verb, which always happens when the verb to be is implied (even in yes/no questions).

Politeness:

These are the main rules for politeness in British society:

– Never use an imperative, or even a you in certain situations, as it can be too direct.

– Use a formal register when you don’t know the person you are talking to, or when that person is one you must be respectful to.

– Say please and sorry very frequently, much more than in Spanish.

– When you want to ask or offer for something, use expressions like Would you mind if…?, Shall I…?, Would it be possible if…?

– Be as indirect as possible, as sometimes being too direct is considered impolite or even rude.

Exercises:

1. Reorder the words to make questions.

a. cases helping me mind these with would you

______________________________?

b. could do hurry please think you you

______________________________?

c. bill could it my on please put you

______________________________?

d. a can for have near table the two we window

______________________________?

e. bring do dog I if mind my you

______________________________?

2. Write indirect questions.

a. Where’s the technical college?

Could you tell me ______________________________?

b. What time does the museum close?

Do you know ______________________________?

c. How long does the bus trip take?

Can you tell me ______________________________?

d. Does this restaurant open on Sundays?

Could you tell me ______________________________?

3. Write a sentence for each situation. Be polite.

a. You’re staying with a British family and you’re with them in the living room. You’d like to watch TV, but it is turned off. What do you say to the family?

______________________________?

b. You’re staying in a student hostel. The girl next door has the radio on with quite loud music and you’re trying to study. What do you say to her?

______________________________?

c. You’re in a restaurant. Your table is next to the door and it’s cold. There’s another free table in the corner. What do you say to the waiter? ______________________________?

d. You’re at a hotel. You have to get up at 6.30 but you haven’t got an alarm clock. What do you say to the receptionist? ______________________________?

LISTENING 15 min. (2nd session)

1. Read the description of an experiment. Then listen to Part 1 of the programme. Correct eight mistakes.

The experiment was done at the John Moore University in London. They wanted to see if UFOs really existed. Julie Cohen, a teacher, was one of the guinea pigs. She didn’t believe in the experiment. She was in a small room lying on a sofa with half ping-pong balls over her eyes and a green light shining on her face. Doctor Matthew Smith was in the same room. He had an envelope with two pictures in it. He had to communicate one of the pictures to Julie using only his mind. He couldn’t hear her but she could hear him.

2. Now listen to Part 2. Write down the seven images which came into Julie’s mind. How successfully did Dr Smith transmit the image?

3. Now listen to Part 3 and answer these questions:

a. Was the experiment a success?

b. How did Dr Smith feel after the experiment?

c. How did Julie feel after the experiment? Did it make her change her mind?

d. What does Dr Smith think will happen in the future?

VOCABULARY: WORD-FORMATION 15 min. (3rd session)

1. Use your dictionary to complete the word in each sentence.

a. The children never do what I tell them to! They are very dis________.

b. It won’t rain in August, surely! That seems extremely un________.

c. No, I told you not to sell the shares! You must have mis________.

d. Jack gets very good marks, and is an out________ student.

e. If you co________ with the police you will receive a light sentence.

f. Dave was in the first sub________ that sailed under the North Pole.

g. Just heat up the rice, it’s been pre________.

h. Mr Jones is incredibly rich. In fact he’s a multi-________.

i. The ship hit a rock, but the lives of the passengers were not en________.

j. I just can’t answer this question! It’s im________.

2. Complete each sentence with a word formed from a word given in the list using one of the prefixes or suffixes given.

care employ home postpone satisfied

charged friend night pronounce skirts

dis- mis- out- over- less-

-ment -ship -ee

a. I travelled to Scotland on the ________ train and slept all the way.

b. You’re always breaking things! Why are you so ________?

c. Jane knows a lot of French words, but she tends to ________ them.

d. We all believe in ________ between the people of different nations.

e. Bad weather caused the ________ of nearly all the football programme.

f. George was very ________ with the service at the hotel.

g. We live in a flat on the ________ of London.

h. Patsy thought the shop assistant had ________ her.

i. David was tired of being a/an ________ so he started his own company.

j. The government is providing more money to help ________ people.

3. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word that follows.

a. You have some good ideas but your work is very ________. Organise

b. It was a bad accident, but luckily we were ________. Injure

c. The ________ of the diamonds came as a shock to us all. Thief

d. How terrible for you! I really ________. Sympathy

e. Margaret had a successful career as a ________. Politics

f. Tom’s ________ makes his social life difficult. Shy

g. Don’t worry. We’ll try to ________ out the problem. Straight

h. I find computers rather cold and ________. Person

i. As the plane approached the airport, it began its ________. Descend

j. Tony has left his job, so we need a ________. Place

WRITING: SUMMARY 30 min. (3rd session)

The pulse of the Princess

Once upon a time there was a king, Sunjar, who had a daughter, Princess Banu. The princess became very ill and her father the king was very sad because he could find no doctors who could cure her. Then one day a stranger arrived in the capital, a mal called Shadrack the physician, who offered to cure the princess. The king allowed him to see the princess, but told him that if he did not cure her, he would lose his head. Shadrack approached the couch where the princess was lying, but instead of examining her like a normal doctor he began to tell the princess stories, of wars and heroes, of peace and glory, and as he spoken his fingers never left her pulse. Finally, his diagnosis was finished. The princess went away, and Shadrack said to the King. ‘Your majesty, I have seen by the reactions of her pulse that she is in love, in love with someone who lives here in this city. That person lives in the street of the jewellers. The man she loves is a young, handsome man called Abul-Fazl, for when I mentioned his name she fainted’.

Now the king admired the skill of this physician, and was very happy to know the cause of his daughter’s illness, but he was at the same time very angry that she was in love with Abul-Fazl, because everyone knew that Abul-Fazl was an unpleasant fool. However, the king sent for the jeweller, and as soon as he arrived the princess began to recover. In a few days she was well again, the jeweller was behaving as if he was the king, not Sunjar, and the king was so pleased with Shadrack the physician that he made him an important minister. Both the king and the doctor knew that Abul-Fazl was the wrong man for the princess, but they also knew that they could not send him away, because that would bring back the princess’s illness. Shadrack provided the answer.

By a trick, he gave Abul-Fazl a medicine which made him get older very quickly. It was as if each day he got about twenty years older. And very quickly, too, the princess began to find his bent back and his grey hair very unattractive. At the same time, Shadrack gave himself another medicine, and by its effect, while Abul-Fazl was getting older, Shadrack was getting younger and younger.

Before very long the princess fell in love with the young physician, so deeply in love that when the king drove Abul-Fazl away from his court, the princess hardly noticed. She and the physician and the king, her father, lived happily ever after. In this way we can see that nothing is inevitable.

Tips for writing a summary:

a. Underline the main events in the story or text.

b. Try to be as brief and concise as possible, not forgetting any important points.

c. Try not to repeat and rewrite everything that is said in the story or text with every detail. Instead, try to select the most important events or ideas and write only them, giving example or some detail if it is crucial for the development of the story or text.

Exercise:

1. Write the summary of this tale.

INVESTIGATION TASK: INTERNET SEARCH 20 min. (4th session)

An investigation task is developed in class in this session, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about word-formation.

COMMUNICATION: SKYPE SESSION 25 min. (4th session)

A Skype session is done in class via Internet and using a computer and a screen, consisting of an oral exchange of communication with English-speaking people, looking for information about a cultural topic of the English language and the English-speaking countries, in this case about word-formation.

REVIEW 45 min. (5th session)

An oral review of the lesson is done in this session. If it is necessary, some extra written exercises are provided and done in class.

EVALUATION 45 min. (6th session)

Grammar (2 points):

Write indirect questions.

a. Where’s the technical college?

Could you tell me ______________________________?

b. What time does the museum close?

Do you know ______________________________?

c. How long does the bus trip take?

Can you tell me ______________________________?

d. Does this restaurant open on Sundays?

Could you tell me ______________________________?

Vocabulary (2 points):

Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word that follows.

a. You have some good ideas but your work is very ________. Organise

b. It was a bad accident, but luckily we were ________. Injure

c. The ________ of the diamonds came as a shock to us all. Thief

d. How terrible for you! I really ________. Sympathy

e. Margaret had a successful career as a ________. Politics

f. Tom’s ________ makes his social life difficult. Shy

g. Don’t worry. We’ll try to ________ out the problem. Straight

h. I find computers rather cold and ________. Person

i. As the plane approached the airport, it began its ________. Descend

j. Tony has left his job, so we need a ________. Place

Dictation (2 points):

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking (2 points):

Life teaches you much more than school.

Writing (2 points):

How can bullying influence personal life.

Tapescript of the dictation:

Teachers sometimes take the side of bullies. They may pick on the victims to win popularity with other pupils. If children have the courage to complain, teachers often do not believe them, do not want to know, or do not care. Head teachers sometimes do not easily admit that bullying exists for fear of harming the reputation of the school.

TAPESCRIPTS

Didactic unit 1

Henry’s first wife was Catherine of Aragon. She was the daughter of the king and queen of Spain, so it was really a political marriage. They got married in 1509 when she was 24 and he was only 18. Catherine was a very kind and religious woman, and she must have had a very sad and difficult life. King Henry desperately needed a son, a son who would keep his family in power for another generation. But although Catherine got pregnant many times, the babies never survived. Years passed and finally Catherine had a baby daughter called Mary. But Henry wanted a son, and by this time, Catherine was too old to have more children. Henry now fell madly in love with Anne Boleyn, one of Catherine’s ladies-in-waiting, and he wanted a divorce from Catherine, but the Pope wouldn’t give him one. This situation continued for years. Finally, Anne Boleyn became pregnant and Henry had to act. He broke off relations with the Catholic Church and declared his marriage to Catherine illegal, even though they had been married for 22 years. Now that they were divorced, Henry was free to marry again.

Henry’s second wife was Anne Boleyn. She was a woman who men found very attractive, and Henry was no exception. He was soon passionately in love with her, as we know from the love letters he wrote her. Anne was a very clever woman, and an ambitious woman too. She made it clear to Henry that she wanted to be his queen, not just his lover. Anne had to wait for six years, but in the end she got what she wanted, and she and Henry married secretly in 1533. But their marriage only lasted three years. A few months after the wedding Anne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth, who would later become queen of England. But though Anne got pregnant again twice, both babies died, and relations between her and Henry began to deteriorate. Henry soon had a new lover, and Anne’s days were numbered. She was arrested, accused of adultery, and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Anne was almost certainly innocent, but on May 19th, 1536, she was beheaded outside the Tower of London. Henry was free to marry again.

Jane Seymour was Henry’s third wife. They were married just two weeks after Anne’s execution, when Jane was 27 years old. She wasn’t a beautiful woman, but she was the woman that Henry loved most, and during their short marriage he was a devoted husband. Jane soon became pregnant, and to Henry’s great joy, on October 15th, 1537, she gave birth to a son, Prince Edward. After waiting for 27 years, Henry finally had the son he wanted. But Jane got ill after the birth, and just two weeks later she died. Although they had only been married for two years, Henry left instructions that when he died he was to be buried next to her.

Henry’s fourth wife was Anne of Cleves. After Jane died, Henry stayed single for a year, but he needed to remarry, both for political reasons, and if possible to have another son. Anne of Cleves, who was a German princess, was considered suitable. Henry wanted to know what she looked like, but of course there were no photographs in those days. So he sent a very famous Dutch painter, Hans Holbein, to paint her portrait. When Henry saw Anne’s painting he immediately fell in love with her. But unfortunately Holbein had exaggerated Anne’s beauty, and when Henry met her in person for the first time, just before their wedding, he didn’t find her at all attractive, in fact he thought she looked like a horse. The King was furious, but it was too late to cancel the wedding, and it went ahead on January 6th, 1540. But Henry and Anne never slept together, and Henry used this as a reason for their divorce after less than six months of marriage. Anne was an intelligent woman and she didn’t complain – she knew what had happened to Henry’s previous wives. And, as usual, King Henry already had another lover, Katherine Howard, who was only 15 years old.

Henry’s sixth and last wife was Katherine Parr. Henry was now 52, a lonely old man, but still with a terrifying personality. When Henry met Katherine Parr she was in love with another man. But of course she could not say no to the king. Katherine was a mature intelligent woman of 31 who had already been married twice, and was probably an ideal person to deal with the old king. Katherine must have been more of a nurse than a wife as Henry was now in very bad health. The marriage lasted four years, and ended when Henry died on January 28th 1547, aged 55. Katherine was now free to marry the man she really loved.

Didactic unit 2

I. Who wrote Abba’s songs?

J. Well, Benny and Björn wrote the music together, Benny on the piano and Björn with this guitar. Stig Andersson, who was their manager, usually thought of the titles, for example SOS or Fernando and then it was Björn who wrote the lyrics for that title. At first, it was very hard for Björn to write lyrics in English – it’s easy to forget that he was writing in a foreign language – but by their third album, his English had improved, because he was reading a lot and travelling, and he started to feel much more confident.

I. Why didn’t they do many tours?

J. There are several reasons. For one thing they didn’t really need to – Abba’s records were always number one in the charts without them going anywhere. But perhaps the main reason was that after Agnetha and Björn’s children were born, Agnetha wanted to spend more time with them – she hated leaving them. And she also developed a bit of a phobia about flying. She became less and less enthusiastic about appearing in public, especially abroad.

I. Did they have a lot of problems with the media?

J. Well, I suppose like with so many famous people, the press were always making up stories about them – for example, when they arrived in Sydney at the beginning of their Australian tour the tabloids said that they were just actors who’d come over, not the real singers. There was also a story that they’d made a deal with a Russian record company to get paid in potatoes, because they didn’t think the rouble was a stable currency! And then of course the press were always intruding in their private lives.

I. Who was this most difficult for?

J. Well, Anni-Frid has a hard time about her father. She thought her father had died when she was a baby, but then a German journalist claimed that he was in fact alive and living in Germany – which turned out to be true! But I’d say that Björn and Agnetha suffered most, particularly at the time of their divorce. They tried to make things easier for themselves by telling journalists that it was ‘a happy divorce’, but Agnetha says in her autobiography, ‘we all know there are no such things as happy divorces’.

I. Why did Agnetha become a recluse?

J. I think probably she had got tired of all the media attention and wanted to be left alone. And also she was really shocked by a serious car crash she had in the 80s. Nowadays she spends most of her time alone, especially now that her children have grown up.

I. Do the members of the group still keep in touch?

J. To a certain extent. Benny and Björn still work together so they see each other a lot, but they don’t see the two girls very often. Björn and Agnetha have two children, so they meet occasionally but not very often. Anni-Frid lives abroad but she visits Sweden from time to time and says hello to the boys.

I. Do you think Abba will ever play together again?

J. No, I don’t think they will play again. There was a time once when it seemed possible – they came together once in 1986 to be interviewed on a TV programme, and there was talk of another Abba album, but it never happened. Björn said recently that for Abba to play again it would have to be something ‘absolutely extraordinary’ – and I can’t think what that could be.

Didactic unit 3

J = Journalist, B = Biologist

P. To begin tonight’s debate, I’d like to welcome Greg Tyler, who is a well-known wildlife journalist. Greg, what do you think?

J. TV channels nowadays are always showing documentaries about wild animals like the tiger becoming extinct, and we see horrible scenes of them being hunted and killed. When people see these programmes they immediately think ‘Oh no! How terrible, we must do something.’ But the documentaries don’t usually tell us why the tiger is being hunted. If they did, we’d probably find that in most cases it’s because the local people depend on hunting animals and then selling them to earn a living. Some of you may remember the film ‘Gorillas in the Mist’. It’s a film about a young American woman, a conservationist, who was trying to protect some gorillas in a very poor region of Africa. At the end of the film the local people killed her. Why? Because they depended on hunting and selling the gorillas to foreign zoos and collectors. By protecting the gorillas, the conservationist was destroying the local economy. So I think it’s all a question of priorities. We can’t just say ‘stop hunting wild animals’; first we have to solve the problem of how people in poor countries can live without hunting. You often see in the newspaper campaigns for ‘Save the tiger’ or ‘Save the gorillas’, but it really should be ‘Save the people’. If we save the people first and make sure they can survive, then they’ll be able to stop killing the animals.

P. Thank you, Greg. And now, it’s hello and welcome to Nina James, who’s a biologist from California. Nina, what’s your point of view?

B. I’m a biologist and ecologist, and I can tell you that the most serious problem facing this planet today is the destruction of our ecosystems. For those of you who aren’t quite sure what ecosystems are, let me just explain. By ecosystems I mean the relationship not only between animals and plants but also between them and their environment. There are many well known reasons why they are being destroyed, for example, air and water pollution and the destruction of the rainforests. But there’s another very important reason and that is that thousands of species – birds, fish, and animals – are becoming extinct. They’re becoming extinct mostly because of too much hunting. Now, you may ask, why is this a problem? Does it really matter if some species disappear? After all, the dinosaurs became extinct, and that doesn’t seem to have been a problem. But what people don’t realize is that when one animal species disappears, this has a chain reaction. It makes other animal and plant species disappear too. It will eventually cause a complete collapse of our ecosystem. And if, or rather when, this happens, the results will be catastrophic. The more animals that become extinct, the less food there will be for man, and that will mean starvation on a world-scale, with millions of people dying of hunger. Although I agree that it’s a question of priorities, the fact is that we have to protect animals first, not people, because if we don’t protect the animals then we haven’t got much of a future on this planet.

Didactic unit 4

1. I was about eight or nine years old, and it was December, the week before Christmas, and my mother had taken me to the theatre. It was a special show for children, with songs and clowns and magic and things like that. Anyway at one point the presenter said, ‘Any child who’s got a birthday today, come up onto the stage and you’re going to be the magician’s assistants.’ My mum gave me a push and said, ‘Go on, you go.’ And as I really wanted to be on stage I rushed up, with some other children. When I was up there the magician asked me what my name was, and then said, ‘So it’s your birthday today then?’ And I automatically said, ‘No, it’s on July 23rd.’ As soon as I’d said it I realized I’d put my foot in it. My face went bright red, and all the other children called out, ‘He’s a cheat. It’s not his birthday today’. At that moment I wanted the earth to open up and swallow me. The magician said it didn’t matter and I could stay up on stage, but I felt awful the whole time. When I came down from the stage all the other children were looking at me and laughing.

2. It was my birthday and I suppose I was four or five. What I really wanted as a present was a dressing-up costume of a princess. I obviously had visions of myself in a beautiful white dress with a crown, and I’d been dreaming of it for weeks. We used to get our presents in the morning at breakfast, and when I came down I saw there was a big box, which I was convinced was it. When I unwrapped the parcel I could see it was dressing-up clothes and on the box it said ‘Indian princess’. But when I opened the box, I found a pair of pink silk trousers and a top – no dress, no crown, not what I wanted at all. I tried not to cry, as we’d been told by our parents time and time again that when we got a present we had to say ‘Thank you, it’s just what I wanted’. But I obviously didn’t manage very well as my mother realized what had gone wrong, and promised to change it. Which she did the next day!

3. I remember when I was 14, and on one Saturday night I was going to my first ‘adult’ party – well, adult in the sense that most of the people there were older than me – they were friends of my brother, and most importantly, there were going to be boys at the party. I can remember that the night before I couldn’t get to sleep, imagining what the party was going to be like, and wondering which of the boys was going to ask me to dance. And the next day I spent the whole afternoon getting ready. I can even remember what I wore – a very short, dark blue dress with yellow and white flowers. Of course, when I finally got to the party, nobody took any notice of me, because I was much younger than the rest. But suddenly this boy, who was the friend of the boy whose party it was, came up to me and asked me to dance, and said I could choose the record. I remember I chose ‘All you need is love’, by the Beatles. I didn’t like the boy at all – he was called Dave and was really ugly but that didn’t matter. I can just remember thinking, ‘Wow this is it – I’m an adult!’ Whenever I hear that song it reminds me of that first party and it brings back really happy memories of that time in my life.

Didactic unit 5

W = Woman

1.

W. One of my colleagues at work is a swimming addict. She has to go swimming every day.

I. Where does she swim?

W. In the local pool – there’s one quite near work.

I. How long for?

W. About half an hour. She does 40 lengths.

I. 40 lengths! Wow! What about weekends?

W. Yeah, weekends too – Saturdays and Sundays – and then she does at least an hour, I think, or maybe more. I mean, she’s definitely addicted because when she can’t go for some reason then she gets really anxious and stressed.

I. Does she realize she’s got a bit of a problem?

W. No, not at all. She doesn’t see it like that. I mean, she’s happy doing it, and at the end of the day she isn’t bothering anyone else. I mean, it’s not an antisocial thing like smoking. And her family and friends are all used to it now. They just think she’s a bit crazy.

2.

W. I’d say my husband is addicted to work – he’s real workaholic. It’s not just that he loves his job, it’s more than that – he doesn’t know what to do when he’s not working. He just keeps accepting loads and loads of work when he’s already got more than he can do. I think he’s afraid of having free time because he just doesn’t know how to relax.

I. Is that a problem for you?

W. Well, yes, I get really fed up with it. I want him to spend more time with me and the kids or just spend more time not working. I can understand that when he didn’t have much work then he had to say yes to everything but now he’s a successful lawyer, then I think he just has to learn to say no. Otherwise he may come home one of these days and find that we’re not there any more.

3. I share a flat with three other people, two boys and this girl called Janice, and in the evening when we’ve all got home from our various jobs, instead of just chatting and watching the telly with us – that’s me and our other two flatmates – in the living room, she locks herself away in her room, where she’s got her computer, and she goes straight onto the Internet and into one of these ‘chat rooms’. She just stays there for ages, sometimes for hours, having conversations with people she doesn’t know. She showed me once, and apparently you don’t use your real name, you have to use a nickname, an invented one – and that makes it seem even more sort of unreal. In think she’s hooked on chat lines now and she can’t stop herself. It’s like an addiction. It worries me a bit because I sometimes think she’s going to forget what it’s like to talk to real people.

4. I’ve got this mate who’s absolutely obsessed with football. He organises his whole life around the matches on the telly. It doesn’t make any difference whether it’s an important match or not – he watches them all. It’s ridiculous – he and his wife can’t go anywhere on a Saturday night until he’s seen the match. It’s like an illness. It’s also really embarrassing when they get invited to someone’s house when there’s a match on and everybody’s chatting and suddenly Simon just says, ‘Do you mind if I put the telly on? The Manchester United-Liverpool match is on.’ He doesn’t care what anyone thinks. And if he’s somewhere like a wedding and he can’t see the game, then he gets really nervous and irritable and he makes an excuse so he can go outside and find out what’s happening on the radio. He even made his wife spend one night of their honeymoon in Paris watching the European cup final on the TV in their hotel room and it wasn’t even his team who was playing. It really gets her down.

Didactic unit 6

RH = Rolf Hausser

I. So, Mr Hausser, if I understand correctly, you knew nothing of what was happening in the United States, of the fact that a doll called Barbie was being sold there and was also being exported.

RH. Yes, that’s right. I knew nothing at all. I didn’t know that Barbie existed. The first news I had was in 1963, when I went to Nuremberg. One morning when I was going for a walk in the town, I went past a toyshop, and in the shop window I saw a whole display of Barbies, hundreds of them. I was furious! It was a different name, but it was my Lili. These people had stolen my doll.

I. What did you do then?

RH. First, I found out who the manufacturers were, and it was a big company called Mattel, and of course then I wanted to take them to court. This was my doll, my Lili. At the very least I should receive some of the profits from this Barbie. But my brother Kurt said to me, ‘Rolf, don’t do it.’ He said this Mattel was a huge multinational company and if I took them to court it would be financial ruin for us, ruin. We were just a small company, you know. Kurt said it would be better for us to sell the patent, to sell the patent of the doll.

I. So is that what you did?

RH. Yes, in the end that’s what we did. We sold the patent. But it was probably the worst thing that we could have done. The worst solution. Because although it’s true that they paid us quite a lot of money, it was nothing, nothing compared with what we would have earned if Mattel had paid us a percentage.

I. And what happened then?

RH. Well, after that things started to go badly. We had lost Lili, and she was our most successful product. Very soon we were making huge losses and had enormous debts. And only nine months after the deal, this agreement, I, Rolf Hausser, was made bankrupt. Bankrupt. It was a tragedy, a tragedy.

I. How do you feel today? Have you got over it?

RH. No, I will never get over it. What I am really angry about, so angry I can’t describe it in words, is that nobody has ever admitted that I am the man who inspired Barbie. My part in her story has simply been wiped out, forgotten, as if I never existed.

I. Ruth Handler has always admitted that she took Lili back to America with her, and that Barbie was inspired by the German doll. However in a recent interview she insisted that she had asked the Japanese manufacturers to make a doll that was only ‘something like’ Lili. But here today, with an original Barbie and a Lili together on the table in front of me, I have to say that they seem practically identical.

Didactic unit 7

D = Detective

I. Is being a private detective like it is in the films?

D. No, I mean, in films you only see a small part of what a private detective does, and usually the exciting part. You don’t see the hours and hours of waiting, the boring side. It’s a much less glamorous job than the films make out.

I. What does your job involve? What are the typical cases you have to deal with?

D. Most of my jobs are about money. The sort of cases I deal with are mainly divorces, for example, when a man needs evidence that his ex-wife is living with someone else, or working. And I also deal with debts, for example, when people owe money to a company. So it can involve all kinds of things, but it’s mainly following people, watching them, seeing where they go, who they meet, and then writing a report for the client. I also do a lot of searching for missing relatives. Perhaps someone comes to me and says, ‘I want to find my brother. I haven’t seen him for thirty years.’ And so I see if I can find him.

I. Are your clients mostly men or women?

D. Both.

I. Does it make a difference?

D. Yes, it does. For example, in cases where one partner suspects that the other is being unfaithful – they they’ve got a lover – and wants me to find out. In these cases the women clients are nearly always right. I mean, if they think their husband is having an affair, he usually is. But on the other hand, if the client is a man, he’s usually wrong. He thinks his wife is having an affair, but she isn’t – it’s just his imagination, or she’s taken a job and hasn’t told him.

I. Do you enjoy catching people out, finding that they’ve been deceiving someone?

D. No. In fact I’d say that’s the worst part of the job. If I find out, for example, that someone is being unfaithful, OK, I’ve done my job, but then I’ve got to give my client the news, tell them something they probably don’t want to hear. For example, sometimes I find out that my client’s husband or wife is leading a completely double life. And then the client will say, ‘Oh I wish I’d never employed you! I’d have preferred not to know.’ But you’d be amazed how many people there are who are leading double lives!

I. What tricks do you see?

D. Well, obviously I can’t tell you too much or I’d be out of a job. But, for example, I keep a lot of different coloured sweaters in the back of the car. In bright colours: red, blue, yellow. And if I’m following someone or watching their house I keep changing my sweater. Because it’s a fact that if someone thinks they’re being followed they think it’s ‘a man in a red sweater’. They focus on the colour much more than on the person. Just changing the colour makes them immediately think you’re someone else.

I. What advice would you give to someone who is deceiving somebody else and who has something to hide?

D. Never throw anything incriminating into the rubbish. It’s the first place a private detective will look – in someone’s rubbish bin. It’s amazing how many people think that just throwing something into the rubbish means it’s disappeared. It hasn’t of course. The people in old films who burnt evidence like letters in the fireplace weren’t so stupid. It’s much safer. And if you suddenly see workmen digging a hole outside your house, you should be suspicious. The workmen may be private detectives.

I. Does your job have any effect on your private life?

D. Well the trouble with this job is that after a while you just don’t trust anybody.

Didactic unit 8

Simon: When I first heard the voice I thought I was dreaming. I got up and came out of the tent and then I saw it really was Joe. My first reaction was happiness. I was absolutely delighted. I just couldn’t believe that he was still alive. My second reaction was shock, because I could see that he was in a terrible physical state and about to collapse. I just couldn’t imagine how he had survived.

Joe: When we were coming down the mountain and I realized that my leg was broken, the first thing I thought was, ‘This is it, I’m going to die.’ We were at 6,000m and I couldn’t think how we could possibly get back down. When I told Simon about my leg I could tell from the way he looked at me that he knew I was in real trouble. He could easily just have said, ‘I’ll go down the mountain and get some help’, which would really have been an euphemism for, ‘I’m sorry, you’re finished’, because when they got back to help me I would have been dead. That’s what most people would have done, just left me and saved themselves. Instead, he took the decision to try to save my life by lowering me thousands of metres down. He put his own life in danger. When he lowered me over the edge of the cliff, I could feel myself hanging there for a few awful seconds, and then I felt the rope break when Simon cut it, and I fell. But I was amazingly lucky – I didn’t fall to the bottom. I landed on a kind of shelf about halfway down. From there it was possible to get back down the mountain and get back to the base camp. If I hadn’t had a broken leg it would only have taken me four or five hours to get there, but I had to drag myself, so it took me four days, and I didn’t have any food or water. And all the time I was terrified that when I got there Simon might already have left. In fact, if I’d arrived two hours later he would have already left and I would’ve died.

Simon: Sometimes people I meet who know the story insult me and say that I was a coward to have cut the rope. They say that I just wanted to save my own life. It is true that the rope between two climbers is symbolic of trust, and to cut it could be seen as a selfish thing to do. But I don’t really mind what people who aren’t climbers think about it, because they don’t understand what was involved. What’s important is that Joe didn’t think it was selfish. In fact the first thing he did when he saw me was to thank me for trying to save him.

Joe: I can’t understand why some people criticize Simon for cutting the rope. I don’t blame him a tall. He couldn’t do anything else. In fact because of his decision, we both survived. The accident didn’t change our relationship – we’re still good friends.

Didactic unit 9

1. Traditional medicine only treats the symptoms of an illness, not the cause. If you’ve got a headache a traditional doctor will say, ‘Take an aspirin.’ But if you come and see me I’ll try to find out why you’re getting these headaches. Is it a problem of diet or stress or what? We treat the whole person, and try to change their lifestyle. We don’t just treat the illness.

2. I’d been trying to give up on and off for year. I’d tried everything, nicotine patches, pills, chewing gum – you name it, I tried it. But nothing worked and I was still on twenty a day. It was a friend of mine who said to me to try acupuncture. I must admit I didn’t think it would work and I was a bit nervous about the needles, but it did work. I haven’t had one now for nearly three months. If anyone asked me now how to stop I’d say acupuncture straight away.

3. I think if it’s anything external then that’s fine – acupuncture, or osteopathy – I mean, they’re called alternative medicine, but they’ve been well studied – and they use techniques that have been used for thousands of years – that’s OK. If I had, for example, a bad back, I’d probably use an osteopath myself. But what I’m really against is taking any form of medication that hasn’t been studied and that applies to most homeopathic medicine, I’m afraid. I think they’re dangerous. They’re not based on research, they haven’t been studied properly, and we doctors see a lot of damage done as a result of them. If one of my patients tells me they’re taking homeopathic medicine, well – I try to persuade them not to.

4. I don’t have any problems at all with massage and things like that, in fact it’s essential for people like me. It’s not that I don’t believe in homeopathic medicine, but the problem is you don’t know exactly what’s in a tablet. Obviously I have to be really careful about what I take, as you can imagine, because of all the drug tests. I could be taking a banned substance without realizing, that’s the problem.

Didactic unit 10

Princess Mary

I. What do you think of today’s fashions?

PM. To be honest, I find them plain and ugly. I can’t see the difference between one person and another. I think that fashion today is awful because there’s nothing pleasant on the eye, you know, and women have given up trying to look beautiful, for some reason which I can’t understand. Women don’t wear dresses any more – dresses used to be a thing which would give more beauty to a woman. It’s very strange that women simply don’t seem to care what they look like. If you look at the monstrous platform shoes people wear – that must be agony to walk in, because they are heavy, apart from the fact that they look too ugly for words. If you were made to wear them you would think it was the most terrible punishment! People pay a fortune for these monstrous shoes. I can’t believe that people really find beauty in them. They do it because they believe – they’re made to believe – that it’s fashion. If they really think they look nice, they’ve lost their minds.

I. Have you ever suffered to look good?

PM. Well, I’ve always been awfully vain, but even so, I don’t think I’ve ever suffered wearing uncomfortable clothes, you know clothes that didn’t let me breathe. I mean, there are some things that I find uncomfortable today, like high-heeled shoes. But they were never uncomfortable for me then, when I was young. But of course, I didn’t use to go for walks in them. They used to ask you, I was told, that in the United States when you used to buy shoes, they used to ask you, ‘Do you want sitting shoes or walking shoes, madam? The only thing I have really suffered with is my hair – it was completely straight and didn’t curl. You can’t imagine what it was like in the days before the Second World War if you had to curl your hair – it was the most ridiculous operation. You were tied up to electric strings and you sat there and your head burnt and it lasted hours, I mean, the whole thing was terrible. So that was suffering, yes that was suffering. If there’s any hope of going to heaven, I hope I’ll get the chance of having a good head of hair.

Tito Lombardo

I. What do you think of today’s fashions?

TL. Well it’s not my favourite period for fashion. My favourite fashion period is definitely the sixties, but unfortunately I was just a child then! I think fashion today has to a certain point become sort of, er, repetitive. I mean, I think that a lot of today’s designers have run out of new ideas – most of today’s clothes and accessories are just a repetition of past styles like sixties-style platform shoes or seventies-style flared trousers. But there is one thing I love about fashion these days and it’s that most people don’t really follow any particular trend of look, I mean, they just wear what they feel comfortable with and I think that’s fantastic, feeling good about the way you look, not trying to look the way the media says you should look.

I. Have you suffered to look good?

TL. Suffered? No not really. Well, I haven’t suffered too much but my pocket definitely has especially when I was younger! I used to spend loads of money on clothes and accessories. No, seriously, I’m not joking – I once spent a fortune on a Versace coat. But I’m totally against wearing something that’s uncomfortable or doesn’t suit me just because it’s the ‘in’ thing. I’ve never been a fashion victim. I like to think of myself as a person with reasonably good taste and I’ve always worn clothes which I feel comfortable with and which sort of express they way I feel at that moment in my life or how I want to be seen by other people. In any case, these days I’m more concerned about being healthy and enjoying what I do than being in fashion.

Didactic unit 11

L = Lucy, C = Charles

Part 1

I. So, Lucy, what do you think of the way Charles has done the room?

L. I hate that sofa! If it was up to me I’d burn it. It reminds me of something in a horror movie. I can’t believe Charles has kept it. On top of it all, it doesn’t go with the rest of the room. And why have a computer in your living room? It just reminds you of work all the time, and let’s face it, a PC and a printer are not the most attractive items of furniture in the world. They make the room look much too practical and technical. I don’t like the blinds either. They remind me of a dentist’s. I wouldn’t mind them in a bathroom or a loo but I’d never put them in a room where I wanted to relax. The silver photo frames look good, though personally I wouldn’t have put them on the coffee table. But in general I find the whole room very cold and impersonal. I think Charles’s problem is that he’s lazy. He hates shopping and always buys the first thing he sees. The room’s just a mixture of cheap modern pieces that don’t really go together. He hasn’t really thought about it at all. That’s his biggest failing. I’m sure it’s the same with most men.

C. There’s nothing about Lucy’s room that I really hate. But I have to say there are certain things that I would never choose myself, for example, the curtains are much too feminine for me. Even if I did choose them I would never have long ones, hanging to the floor; they would look much better shorter, to just below the window. And then those awful branches in the corner, you know those twig things. I think they’re a typical woman’s thing. I just don’t see the point of them. But I love the colour of the walls. And I really like the fireplace. I also think Lucy’s shelves are better than mine, and they’re more stylish. The sofa is my biggest criticism though. It’s completely impractical. Eating or drinking anything on that would be impossible. I couldn’t watch football and drink beer on the sofa like that! On the whole my greatest criticism of the room is that I think Lucy’s thought more about style than about practicality, though I must admit I find the whole effect relaxing and generally quite tasteful.

Part 2

Charles’s is a very masculine room, with no personality. He’s chosen white walls – very unadventurous. I think a softer cream colour would have been better. The whole room looks more like an office than a living room. A better place for the computer would have been in a corner, in a less obtrusive position; a computer reminds you of work and makes it hard to relax. And then electrical items like the huge TV and video are never attractive – they’re always difficult to hide. The wooden blinds are fashionable and practical but they do have quite a clinical appearance. Curtains would have been better. The sofa is also a bit old-fashioned and seems to be out of place in this modern room. It was a bad idea to keep it, I’m afraid, even if it was a present from his mother. I think Lucy has created a more comfortable, more coordinated living area. The classic cream curtains go well with the cream sofa; they’re both fashionable choices. And she has made the fireplace much more interesting. But it would have looked even better with a large picture or a mirror above it, and would have made it more of a focal point. The large pot with the willow branches is a marvellous idea. I love it. But the rug is too big and rather dark. A smaller, lighter rug would have looked better. On the whole, I have to say I think Lucy seems to have thought more about the decorating than Charles.

Didactic unit 12

I. Right, now to finish on ‘Crimebusters’ today we’re going to tell you how not to steal a car. The story began when Mr Matt Holden, who you’ll be hearing from in a moment, parked his car in his usual place, in Crescent Road, Ealing, and then went to work. When he came out of his office that evening, he found that his car had disappeared, and phoned the police. What happened next, Matt?

MH. Well, I reported it to the police, and only a couple of days later they phoned me and said it had turned up. It had been just, you know, dumped at the side of the road, a couple of miles away. I went to pick it up, and of course the police said they didn’t think they would catch the person or people who had stolen it, but anyway I was just glad to have my car back.

I. What condition was it in?

MH. Well, the thief had crashed it and the back light was smashed, but nothing serious. At least there was nothing missing, I mean, they hadn’t taken the radio or anything. And what surprised me most of all was that my camera, which I’d forgotten to take out of the car at the weekend and had left in the glove compartment, was still there. I mean, it’s a good camera, it’s a Nikon, and it’s worth quite a lot of money.

I. So then what?

MH. Well, then about a week later, I looked at the photos. First there were a lot of photos I’d taken when I was on holiday. But then I saw some of a man I didn’t know, and also of a girl. When I looked at them a bit more carefully I saw that the guy was in my car and he had a screwdriver in his hand. So then I realized what had happened.

I. Matt took his photos to the police and they recognized the thief, 29-year-old Lee Hosken, straight away. It turned out that when he stole the car he found the camera and decided to take a picture of his girlfriend who was with him, and then he got her to take some pictures of him. He even posed with the screwdriver he’d used to break into the car. But then when he crashed the car, he forgot to take the camera and left it in the car! As the police spokesman said afterwards, ‘It’s amazing just how stupid some criminals can be’.

Didactic unit 13

1. I think it’s what people want, isn’t it? I mean, if nobody watched the matches, TV companies wouldn’t show them. And you can see other sports like skiing and volleyball of the satellite channels. I personally think there should be more, not less. I’d be happy to watch a match every night.

2. I’d say the problem is parents, not TV. People are always complaining that children don’t read enough today and are more violent than they used to be, but I don’t think it’s the TV’s fault. I mean, all you have to do is switch it off. The real problem is that parents use the TV as a kind of babysitter because they’re too tired to play with their kids.

3. It depends, I mean, it’s true you can watch TV in different languages now so I suppose that gives you more choice – if you can speak the language that is. But the programmes themselves are really all the same. Quiz shows, old films, things like that. So they’re not really more varied, it’s just that there’s more of them.

4. Well, I watch the news on TV and I sometimes get sports results on the Internet, but I still get a newspaper every day. I mean, it’s not just news, it’s opinions. Anyway I like to buy a paper and read it on the train on the way to work.

5. Well, I know a lot of people think that, but personally I don’t. Partly because I think the breaks give you a chance to go and make a cup of coffee or go to the toilet or whatever, and partly because nowadays the commercials are often better than the actual films. Have you seen the one about the…

6. I absolutely hate these programmes where they talk in great detail about people who are only on TV because they’re married to or going out with someone famous, or are the son or daughter of someone who’s famous. And most of these people are either completely uninteresting or completely stupid, but because of TV they become celebrities.

Didactic unit 14

P = Presenter, DW = David Weeks

P. And now, another edition of ‘The world of science’, with Jane Marple.

I. We’ve all met them, that irritating woman who turns up at a school reunion 20 years later looking almost the same age as the day she left school. Or the middle-aged man who can beat people half his age on the tennis court. Well, Dr David Weeks, who’s with us tonight, has spent years researching into these so-called ‘superyoung’ people. Dr Weeks, could you start by telling us exactly what you mean by the expression ‘superyoung’.

DW. Yes, well, I’m referring to a lucky group of people who actually look, behave and feel as much as 18 years younger than they really are.

I. In your book, in fact, you conclude that their real age, their birth date, is irrelevant, is that right?

DW. Yes, that’s right.

I. Is looking younger than our age just a question of our genes?

DW. Well, of course there is a genetic factor. But there are many other factors to take into account. My research has shown, for example, that your love life is an important factor. The superyoung tend to have more satisfying romantic relationships than the average person. They often have friendships and relationships with people younger than themselves too.

I. And do the superyoung tend to have a lot of children?

DW. No, in fact the opposite. Our research showed that 15% of the superyoung didn’t have children at all and those that have children tend to have very small families, one or two children at most.

I. Is lifestyle an important factor?

DW. Yes, the superyoung are usually very active, energetic people. They’re the sort of people who wake up refreshed in the morning, jump out of bed and are ready to go. The superyoung usually have normal or even low blood pressure and they tend to sleep very well. Our research showed that they tend to travel more often than the average person and when they do travel they often travel more widely – that is, they tend to travel further. Generally speaking, they are also people who read more and watch less TV than the rest of us.

I. And do they do a lot of exercise or sport?

DW. Yes, in fact we found that they were the kind of people who prefer to do sport than to watch sport. A curious fact we discovered is that they tend to prefer individual sports such as swimming or walking to playing team sports such as football.

I. What about their personality?

DW. On average the superyoung tend to be more sociable and less neurotic than the rest of us. We also discovered that they tend to be more honest. They are more likely to tell the truth than the average person.

I. Is diet an important factor?

DW. Well, in fact this was one of the most surprising discoveries of our research. There was no common dietary habit shared by the superyoung. There were vegetarians and red meat addicts, there were people who drank no alcohol and people who regularly drank wine, beer or spirits. So diet does not appear to be an important factor. However smoking was, perhaps not surprisingly. Among the superyoung people we identified, non-smokers outnumbered smokers by about 20 to 1.

I. Do you find that people who look much younger than they are had sometimes had a little bit of help from a plastic surgeon?

DW. No, in fact, again the opposite was true. The superyoung rarely use plastic surgery or hair transplants to keep their young looks.

I. Why not? Because they don’t need to?

DW. Exactly.

I. Thank you, Dr Weeks.

Didactic unit 15

JC = Julie Cohen, DS = Dr Smith

Part 1

I. Last February, scientists at John Moore University in Liverpool opened a research unit to try to find the answer to two questions: Does telepathy really exist? Will we be able to use extra-sensory perception to communicate in the future? With us today is Julie Cohen, one of the guinea pigs, who’s been taking part in the experiments. Hello, Julie.

JC. Hello.

I. First of all, I’d like to ask you why you decided to take part.

JC. Well, I’m a journalist. I work for one of the big national newspapers and they asked me to go and then to write about it.

I. What did you think about telepathy before you went? Did you believe in it?

JC. No, not at all. I was extremely sceptical. I thought it was a load of rubbish, to be quite honest. I didn’t think the experiment would work at all.

I. Tell us exactly what happened.

JC. Well, when I got there I was taken to a small room, room 308. Then I had to lie down on a bed that looked like an operating table and close my eyes, and some things which looked like half ping-pong balls were placed over them. Then a bright red light was switched on which was shining on my face.

I. Doctor Matthew Smith, who is also with us today, is one of the people who was running the experiments. Doctor Smith, could you explain exactly where you were and what you were doing.

DS. Well, I was sitting in a different room in another part of the building. I had an envelope containing several pictures. I took out one of the pictures, which I had never seen before, and I then tried to communicate this image to Julie, using the power of my mind to transmit my thoughts. I could hear Julie’s voice through a microphone, but she couldn’t hear anything I said. She had to describe the images which came into her head, and I used what she said to try to send her thoughts that would guide her in the right direction.

Part 2

I. So, tell us what happened.

DS. I started staring at the picture and trying to transmit the image to Julie.

JC. Yes, I was lying there and feeling pretty nervous, sort of waiting for something to happen. The strange images started to come into my mind and I began describing them into the microphone. First I saw a house with a red roof. Then an elephant…

DS. When I heard this I tried to transmit to her, ‘No, no, it’s something human, think human’.

JC. At that moment – you might not believe it – but I could feel the image of the elephant being pushed out of my head. It was a really weird sensation. Then I saw flowers. When I said this I started to feel more confident. I had a strong feeling that Doctor Smith was transmitting this image to me. Then I started to get an image of music from an old-fashioned record player. When I said this I could feel sort of waves of enthusiasm. Then I told Doctor Smith that I could see a woman with dark hair.

DS. When she said this I was saying, ‘That’s right, that’s right’, although of course Julie couldn’t hear me, and I was concentrating even harder on the picture.

JC. In my mind I could see a picture of shoes, like ballet shoes. I saw a dancer, a dancer who had one arm in the air. The dancer was holding something red, which looked like a bag. The image in my head was like a Polaroid photograph which was becoming clearer and clearer. And then suddenly they told me that that was the end of the test.

Part 3

JC. When the experiment was over one of the members of the research team came into the room and put four postcards on the table. I had to give them a mark from 1 to 5. One meant it was nothing like the image I had seen in my mind, and 5 was definitely the image. When I saw the picture of the dancer, I felt really excited. I mean, there’s no doubt that it was the picture that had been developing in my mind. Not everything I saw was accurate. For example, I saw her holding a bag, but in fact it was a vacuum cleaner. Then Doctor Smith came into the room and he was obviously delighted.

I. What did you feel then?

JC. Well, I felt excited, but also slightly strange to think that another human being had the power to transmit a picture to me only using his mind. When Doctor Smith came in from the other room, when I look at him, I felt a bit strange.

I. So you were convinced?

JC. Yes, totally. Before the experiment I would have said telepathy was like science-fiction. Now I’m not so sure.

I. And your conclusions, Doctor Smith?

DS. Julie is just one of the many people with whom this experiment was successful. I am convinced that in the future it may be possible to make telepathy so reliable that we can use it as a form of communication. Instead of phoning someone you may be able to send them a message telepathically.

I. Julie, Doctor Smith, thank you very much for being with us this evening.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOLTON D., TATTERSALL L.: Select. Oxford University Press, UK, 1997.

COPAGE J., LUQUE-MORTIMER L., STEPHENS M.: Get on Track to FCE. Longman, 2005.

MURPHY, R.: English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press, UK, 1994.

O’NEILL, R.: Focus on First Certificate in English. Oxford University Pres, UK, 1994.

OXENDEN C., LATHAM-KOENING C.: New English File – Intermediate Plus. Oxford University Press, UK, 1997.

THOMSON, MARTINET: Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press, UK, 1992.

VINCE, M.: First Certificate Language Practice. Heinemann, UK, 1993.

1st Bach

 

UNIT

CONTENTS

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY

PHONETICS

WRITING

COMMUNICATION

1st

term

Sep.

1. How often do you choose the Prime Minister?

Present tenses

History and politics

Word stress

Interview

Describing and asking

Oct.

2. Have you ever been abroad?

Past tenses

Education and learning

Regular and irregular past

Biography

Oct.

3. It will have already been updated.

Future tenses

Science and computers

Long/short vowels

Email

Nov.

4. The more, the merrier.

Comparatives, so/such, adj. -ed/ing

People and behaviour

Silent letters

Description

Nov.

5. How much money do you spend?

Articles, adverbs and quantifiers

Food and cooking

Schwa ә and silent r

Recipe

Dec.

6. Anyone but you.

Connectors: addition, contrast and cause

British and American English

Sentence stress

Composition

2nd

term

Jan.

7. You shouldn’t have smoked.

Modal verbs

Crime and punishment

Compound stress

Story

Arguing

Feb.

8. Do you know the man who has been promoted?

Relative clauses

Work and employment

Plosives and aspiration: p, t, k, h

Informal letter

Feb.

9. I wish I were ill.

Conditionals: 0,1,2,3 and wish

Health and medicine

Letter y

Letter of complaint

Mar.

10. Try it on!

Phrasal and prepositional verbs

Clothes and appearance

Strong/weak syllables

Opinion essay

Mar.

11. Sue has been accused, hasn’t she?

Question tags

Money

Question intonation

Speech

3rd

term

Apr.

12. I had my house painted.

Passive voice and

have something done

Housework and expressions do/make

æ/Λ

s/z/ƒ

Newspaper article

Informing

May

13. John said that he would come.

Reported speech

The media

Emphasis

Report

May

14. John ordered me to come.

Reporting verbs and gerund/infinitive

Travel and holidays

th: θ/đ

dς/tƒ

Review

Jun.

15. Could you tell me exactly where you were at 8 o’clock pm?

Indirect questions and politeness

Word-formation

Homonyms, homophones, homographs

Summary